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A&P II Chapter 24


Calcitrol Vitamin D
Hilum The part of an organ where structures such as blood vessels enter or leave
Retroperitoneal External or posterior to the peritoneum
Nephron Functional unit of the kidney
Glomerulus A capillary network within the renal corpuscle in a kidney
Glomerular Capsule (Bowman's Capsule) Two layers of tissue that surround the glomerulus
Renal tubule composed of a single layer, long, winding, tube
Proximal Convoluted Tubule The first region of the renal tubule
Nephron Loop Loop of Henle- Each nephron loop has two limbs
Distal convoluted tubule Originates at the renal cortex and extends to a collecting tubule
Filtration Membrane A porous, thin, and negatively charged structure that is formed by the glomerulus and visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
Peritubular Capillaries The anatomic structures and physiologic conditions that influence tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
Vasa Recta Straight capillaries that lie parallel to the loop of henle
Filtrate The materials that pass through a filter
Filtration The filtering of something through a filter to remove waste and other substances
Reabsorption Being absorbed more than once
Pedicels Renal hilum--or a foot process of a podocyte
Renal Threshold Concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine
Aldosterone Hormone produced by the adrenal gland; plays a major role in regulation of plasma sodium, extracellular potassium, and arterial blood pressure
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Hormone released by the posterior pituitary gland; increases water reabsorption in the kidney and decreases urine production
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide A powerful vasodilator and a protein hormone released by heart muscle cells
Aquaporins Protein channels in the plasma membrane allowing the passage of water
Obligatory Water Absorption Water follows reabsorbed solutes due to osmotic gradients created between the filtrate and intracellular fluid
Facultative Water Reabsorption Permeability is controlled by ADH
Urea A nitrogenous waste product produced by amino acid metabolism and eliminated in urine
Creatinine Nitrogenous waste product resulting from the breakdown of creatine and excreted in urine
Ureters Tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder
Urinary bladder The sac that holds urine for excretion
Detrusor Muscle Muscle that acts to expel urine from the bladder
Urethra Tube that extends from the bladder and conducts urine to th exterior of the body
Micturition Urination