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Biology Final 1

Skeletal, Muscle, Nervous

What are the immovable joints in the skull? Sutures
Where does ossification of a long bone begin? In the middle of the diaphysis
List bones in the axial skeleton. The skull, sternum, ribs, and spinal column.
List and describe the 3 types of joints Synarthroses — immovable joints Amphiarthroses — Permits only slight movement Diarthroses — Freely movable joints.
Define the term proximal. Closest to the point of attachment.
Distinguish between tendons and ligaments. Tendons -connect muscles to bones Ligaments -connect bone to bone.
What is the outer covering of a long bone? periosteum
Where does hematopoiesis occur? In the bone marrow.
What is a compound fracture? When the bone protrudes through the skin.
What is osteoarthritis? Inflammation of the joints due to age.
What are the three types of healthy bone cells? Osteoclasts -break bone Osteoblasts -make bone Osteocytes -mature bone cells.
Which two minerals are stored in bone? Calcium and Phosphorus
How many bones in a normal human body? 206
Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial -includes skull, ribs, sternum, and the spine. Appendicular - includes the arms, hands, legs, feet (appendages)
What is gross anatomy? Anatomy that you do not need a microscope for.
List and describe or diagram 3 planes in the body. Transverse plane -divides the body into superior and inferior portions Sagittal plane -divides the body right and left parts Coronal plane -divides the body into anterior or posterior portions.
What is pathology? The study of diseases.
Which type of tissue covers and protects body surfaces? Epithelial Tissue
What organs are contained in the abdominal cavity? stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.
Define the term inferior. Lower most part of a structure or below.
Define the term lateral. way from the midline or to the side.
List 3 structures found in the respiratory system. Lungs, Larynx, trachea
Define the term superior. The upper most part of a structure
Put the following terms in order from smallest to largest: organs, cells, organ systems, tissues cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
What is morphology? deals with the form and structure of plants and animals.
What is physiology? The study of how structures work. (function)
Define the term distal. away from the point of attachment.
Which tissue stores fat? Adipose
Which type of epithelial tissue makes up the walls of the capillaries? Simple Squamous
What is the basic unit of structure of the nervous system? neurons
Which type of epithelial tissue is composed of extremely thin, flat cells? simple squamous
Blood is which type of tissue? connective
What is the matrix and which type of tissue contains a matrix? Non-living intercellular(inside the cell) material. connective
List 6 types of epithelial tissue and briefly describe each or diagram each. Simple Squamous -1 thin flat - air sacs of lungs & walls of capillaries Simple Cuboidal -1 cube-shaped -kidney tubules & ducts of glands Simple Columnar -1 elongated cells -digestive tract & uterus Stratified Squamous -mulilayer, squamous - mouth &
List the 8 types of connective tissue. Blood cells, Loose C.T, Bone, Fibrous C.t., Fibrocartilage, adipose, elastic,hyaline
What type of tissue controls the beating of the heart? Cardiac (muscle)
List 2 places that smooth muscle is found. stomach and hollow organs
Describe striated muscle. Voluntary muscle is striated (you control it), skeletal.
Distinguish between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoclasts-break bone Osteoblasts-make bone
What is the stimulus strong enough to activate a neuron? The stimulus has to reach the thresh hold
What is a synapse? The space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron
Neurons that lack a myelin sheath are collectively called gray matter
In relation to unmyelinated fibers, myelinated fibers conduct impulses faster
What causes multiple sclerosis? destruction of the myelin sheath of the neurons in the CNS
45. What is the ability of a receptor to respond to a stimulus? Excitability or irritability
46. Are reflexes learned or not? How do you know? They are not learned. In dangerous moments, you body takes over and reacts before you have the time to process it.
47. What is the control center for all activities in the body? CNS
48. List 3 things that protect the spinal cord. Vertebral column, cerebrospinal fluid, and meninges
49. Distinguish between efferent and afferent nerve fibers. afferent -towards the cell body, sensory efferent -away from the cell body, motor
50. Distinguish between the origin and the insertion of a muscle. origin -proximal attachment (doesn’t move) insertion -distal attachment (does the movement)
51. Distinguish between flexion and extension. flexion -decreasing the angle between bones extension -increasing the angle between joints
52. Distinguish between abduction and adduction. abduction -moving away from the midline of the body. adduction -moving towards the midline of the body
53. Distinguish between the agonist and antagonist. Agonist -causes the movement to occur Antagonist -opposes the movement and and returns the muscle to its original position.
54. What is the function of the sternocleidomastoid? draws head to chest when both are flexed draws head toward shoulder on contraction muscle side.
55. What is the function of the masseter? raises lower jaw and clenches teeth (chewing)
56. What is the function of the orbicularis oris? closes lips and aids in speech
57. What is the function of the rectus femoris? extends the lower leg
58. What is the function of the rectus abdominus? flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal organs
59. What is the outer covering of a muscle? epimysium
60. Distinguish between pronation and supination. pronation -palm downward supination -palm upward
61. Gray matter is made of neurons that lack a myelin sheath
62. What is the function of the cerebellum? controls balance and muscle coordination
63. Where is the respiratory center of the brain? medulla oblongata
64. Is a reflex arc learned or unlearned? unlearned
65. Damage to the primary motor area on the left side of the brain would cause... problems on the right side of your body
66. Where are the vital centers for heart rate and blood vessel diameter? Vasomotor and Cardiac center in the medulla oblongata
67. Damage to the olfactory nerve will most likely result in the inability to smell
68. What are the tough protective coverings lining the vertebral column and brain? meninges
69. The _______________ is concerned with balance and muscle coordination. cerebellum
70. The _________________ _____________ is part of the brainstem that controls heart rate. medulla oblongata
71. The __________ system of the brain is concerned with emotions. limbic
72. This word means to conduct impulses away from the CNS efferent
73. Nonconductive cells that protect and support neurons. neuroglial cells
74. Treelike branches of neuron dendrites
75. The kind of neuron that connects sensory neurons to motor neurons associative
76. Neurons that conduct impulses TOWARD the CNS sensory
77. The time it takes to see danger and react to it. reaction time
78. What are the 2 types of neurons? neuron and neuroglial cells
79. What are the 3 main parts of neuron? dendrites, cell body, and axon
80. What is the largest portion of the brain? cerebrum
Created by: ToriPowell



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