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Trauma Definitions

Definitions for the Trauma Section - Blinn College EMS Program

Emboli Undissolved solid, liquid, or gaseous matter in the bloodstream that may cause blockage of blood vessels.
Energy Capacity to do work in the strict physical sense.
Epistaxis Bleeding from the nose resulting from injury, disease, or environmental factors.
Exsanguination Blood loss sufficient to cause death.
Commotio Cordis Lethal cardiac arrhythmia caused by by a sharp non-penetrating blow to the sternum.
Comorbitdity Simultaneous presence of more than one disease or condition.
Electrical Alternas Alternating amplitude of the P, QRS, and T waves on the ECG rhythm strip as the heart swings in a pendulum-like fashion within the pericardial sac during tamponade.
Epicardium Serous membrane covering the outer surface of the heart; the visceral pericardium.
Flail chest Defect in the chest wall that allows for free movement of a segment. Breathing will cause paradoxical chest wall movement.
Great vessels Large arteries and veins located in the mediastinum that enter and exit the heart: pulmonary artery, the aorta, the inferior vena cava, and the superior vena cava.
Hemopneumothorax Condition in which air and blood are in the pleural space.
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood that originates in the respiratory tract.
Hemothorax Blood within the pleural space.
Ligamentum Arteriosum Cordlike remnant of a fetal vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta at the aortic isthmus.
Myocardium Muscular tissue of the heart.
Pericardial tamponade A restriction to cardiac filling caused by blood (or other fluid) within the pericardial sac.
Pericardium Fibrous sac that surrounds the heart.
Pneumothorax A collection of air in the pleural space. Air may enter the pleural space through an injury to the chest wall or through an injury to the lungs. In a tension pneumothorax. pressure builds because there is no way for air to escape, causing lung to collapse.
Precordium Area of the chest wall overlying the heart.
Pulmonary Hilum Central medial region of the lung where the bronchi and pulmonary vasculature enter the lung.
Pulsus Alternas Drop of greater than 10mmHg in the systolic blood pressure during the inspiratory phase of respiration that occurs in patients with pericardial tamponade.
Pulsus Paradoxus Alternating strong and weak pulse.
Rhabdomyolysis Acute pathological process that involves the destruction of skeletal muscle.
Tension Pneumothorax Buildup of air under pressure within the thorax. The resulting compression of the lung severely reduces venous return, cardiac output, and the effectiveness of respiration.
Tracheobrochial Tree The structures of the trachea and the bronchi.
Xiphisternal Joint Union between xiphoid process and the body of the sternum.
Degloving injury Avulsion in which the mechanism of injury tears the skin off the underlying muscle,tissue, blood vessel, and bone
Dermis True skin, also called the corium; it is the layer of tissue producing the epidermis and housing structures, blood vessels, and nerves normally associated with the skin
Ecchymosis blue-black discoloration of the skin due to leakage of blood into the tissues
Epidermis outermost layer of skin composed of dead or dying skin cells
epithielization early stage of wound healing in which epithelial cells migrate over the surface of the wound
erythema general reddening of the skin due to dilation of the superficial capillaries
fascia a fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and separates, muscle and may also unite the skin with underlying tissue.
fibroblast specialized cells that form collagen
gangrene deep-space infection usually caused by the anaerobic bacterium (clostridium perfringens)
granulocytes white blood cells charged with the primary purpose of neutralizing foreign bacteria
hematoma collection of blood beneath the skin or trapped within a body compartment
hemostasis the body's three-step process to local hemorrhage, comprising a vascular phase in which aggregating platelets form a weak clot, and a coagulation phase that results in the formation of fibrin, creating a strong clot.
hyperemia increased blood flow into and through injured or infected tissue, responsible for the reddish skin color, or erythema, associated with inflammation
impaled object foreign body embedded in a wound
incision very smooth or surgical laceration, frequently caused by a knife, scapel, razor blade, or piece of glass
infection invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in a body part or tissue
inflammation complex process of local cellular and biochemical changes as a consequence of injury or infection an early stage of healing
integumentary system skin, consisting of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers
keloid a formation resulting from overproduction of scar tissue
laceration an open wound, normally tear with jagged borders
lumen opening, or space, within a needle, artery, vein, or other hollow vessel
lymphangitis inflammation of the lymph channels, usually as a result of a distal infection.
Circumduction Movement at a synovial joint where the distal end of a bone describes a circle but the shaft does not rotate.
Closed Fracture A broken bone in which the bone ends or the forces that caused it do not penetrate the skin.
Comminuted Fracture Fracture in which a bone is broken into several pieces.
Cramping Muscle pain resulting from over activity, lack of oxygen, and accumulation of waste products.
Devascularization Loss of blood vessels from a body part.
Diaphysis Hollow shaft found in long bones.
Diarthroses Synovial joints.
Dislocation Complete displacement of a bone end from its position in a joint capsule.
Epiphyseal Area of the metaphysis where cartilage is generated during bone growth in childhood. Also called growth plate.
Epiphysis End of a long bone, including the epiphyseal, or growth, plate and supporting structures underlying the joint.
Fascicle Small bundle of muscle fibers.
Fatigue Fracture Break in a bone associated with prolonged or repeated stress.
Greenstick Fracture Partial fracture of a child's bone.
Hairline Fracture Small crack in a bone that does not disrupt its total structure.
Haversian Canals Small perforations of the long bones through which the blood vessels and nerves travel through the bone itself.
Impacted Fracture Break in a bone in which the bone is compressed on itself.
Insertion Attachment of a muscle to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts.
Joint Area where adjacent bones articulate.
Joint Capsule Chamber formed by ligaments surrounding a joint that holds a small amount of synovial fluid to lubricate articular surfaces.
Ligaments Bands of connective tissue that connect bone to bone and hold joints together.
Malleolus The protuberance of the ankle.
Medullary Canal Cavity within a bone that contains the marrow.
Abruptio Placentae a condition in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall
Evisceration a protrusion of organs from a wound
Guarding protective tensing of the abdominal muscles by a patient suffering abdominal pain
Hematemesis vomiting of blood
Hematochezia passage of stools containing red blood
Hematuria blood in the urine
Mesentery double fold of peritoneum that supports the major portion of the small bowel, suspending it from the posterior abdominal wall
Pelvic Space division of the abdominal cavity containing the organs located within the pelvis
Peritoneal Space division of the abdominal cavity containing the organs or portions of organs covered by the peritoneum
Peritoneum fine fibrous tissue surrounding the interior of most of the abdominal cavity and covering most of the small bowel and some of the abdominal organs
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum caused by chemical or bacterial irritation
Rebound tenderness pain caused by any abdominal jarring, as occurs with percussion or when the pressure of deep palpitation is released quickly
Retroperitoneal space division of the abdominal cavity containing the organs posterior to the peritoneal lining
Supine hypotensive syndrome inadequate return of venous blood to the heart, reduced cardiac output, and lowered blood pressure resulting from pressure on the inferior vena cava by the fetus and uterus late in pregnancy
Abduction movement of a body part away from the midline
Adduction movement of a body part toward the midline
Amphiarthrosis joints that permit a limited amount of independent motion
Articular surface surface of a bone that moves against another bone
Bursae sacs containing synovial fluid that cushion adjacent structures
Callus thickened area that forms at the site of a fracture as part of the repair process
Cancellous having a latticework structure, as in the spongy tissue of a bone
Cartilage connective tissue providing the articular surfaces of the skeletal system
Flechettes Arrow-shapped projectiles found in some military ordance.
Force Strength or energy.
Hemoptysis Coughing up blood that originates in the respiratory tract.
Incendiary Combusting easily or creating combustion.
Index of Suspesion Anticipation of the severity of an injury based on the events and circumstances that appear to have caused the injury.
Inertia Tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion unless acted on by an external force.
Kinematics A branch of physics that deals with motion of a body or system of bodies without consideration to its mass or forces acting upon it.
Kinetic Energy Energy an object has while it is in motion.
Kinetics Branch of physics that deals with motion, taking into consideration mass, velocity, and force.
Mass A measure of the matter that an object contains.
Motion The process of changing place, movement.
Ordance Military weapons and munations
Overpressure A rapid increase, then decrease, in atmospheric pressure created by an explosion.
Oxidizer An agent that enhances combustion of a fuel.
Perforating Trauma A form of penetrating trauma that occurs when an object enters and exits the body.
Pressure Wave Area of overpressure that radiates outward from an explosion.
Profile The cross section of a bullet along its direction of travel; the energy-exchange surface of the bullet when it contracts a target.
Projectile An object hurled or projected by the exertion of force.
Metaphysis The wide portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the narrow diaphysis.
Oblique fracture A fracture, the line of which runs obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the bone
Opposition The relation between the thumb and the other digits of the hand for the purpose of grasping objects between the thumb and fingers
Origin The place or point where a muscle, nerve, or other body part arises, in particular.
Osteoblast A cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation.
Osteoclast A large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing.
Osteocyte A bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.
Osteoporosis A medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D.
Paresthesia Is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.
Perforating Canals Canals in bone through which blood vessels pass.
Periosteum A dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints.
Red Bone Marrow Bone marrow in which the stroma primarily contain the developmental stages of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and megakaryocytes; it is present throughout the skeleton during fetal life and at birth. After the fifth postnatal year, it is gradually replaced in the long bones by yellow marrow.
Reduction 1:the action or fact of making a specified thing smaller or less in amount, degree, or size: 2:The action of remedying a dislocation or fracture by returning the affected part of the body to its normal position.
Rotation The process of turning around an axis.
Spasm A sudden involuntary muscular contraction or convulsive movement.
Spiral Fracture Is a bone fracture occurring when torque (a rotating force) is applied along the axis of a bone.
Sprain Also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion
Strain to over exercise, excessive effort or exercise, an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
Subluxation A partial dislocation.
Synarthroses A type of joint which permits very little or no movement under normal conditions.
Synovial Fluid A viscous, non-Newtonian fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. With its egg-white-like consistency, the principal role of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between the articular cartilage of synovial joints during movement.
Open Fracture Is one in which the bone breaks through the skin; it may then recede back into the wound and not be visible through the skin.
Peripheral Vascular Resistance The resistance of the vessels to the flow of blood; it increases when the vessels constrict and decreases when the vessels relax. Also called afterload.
Platelet One of the fragments of cytoplasm that circulates in the blood and works with components of the coagulation system to promote blood clotting. Platelets also release serotonin, a vasoconstrictive substance.
Platelet Phase Second step in the process of hemostasis in which platelets adhere to blood vessel walls and to each other.
Preload The pressure within the ventricles at the end of diastole; the volume of blood delivered to the atria prior to ventricular diastole.
Pulse Pressure Difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures.
Septic Shock Form of shock caused by massive infection in which toxins compromise the vascular system's ability to control blood vessels and distribute blood.
Shock A state of inadequate tissue perfusion.
Stroke Volume The amount of blood ejected by the heart in one cardiac contraction.
Tilt Test Measuring the blood pressure before and after moving the patient from a supine to a sitting position; a drop in the systolic blood pressure of 20 mmHg or an increase in the pulse rate of 20 beats per minute after the patient is moved to a sitting position is a finding suggestive of a relative hypovolemia.
Tourniquet A constrictor used on an extremity to apply circumferential pressure on all arteries to control bleeding.
Tranexamic Acid (TXA) A drug that inhibits fibrinolysis (the breakdown of blood clots); an antifibrinolytic.
Vascular Phase First step in the process of hemostasis, in which smooth blood vessel muscle contracts, reducing the vessel lumen and the flow of blood through it.
Vein A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart.
Abrasion Scraping or abrading away of the superficial layers of the skin; an open soft tissue injury.
Amputation severance, removal, or detachment, either partial or complete, of a body part.
Avulsion Forceful tearing away or separation of body tissue.
Chemotactic Factors Chemicals released by white blood cells that attract more white blood cells to an area of inflammation.
Collagen Tough, strong protein that makes up most of the body's connective tissue.
Compartment Syndrome Muscle ischemia that is caused by rising pressures within an anatomic fascial space.
Contusion Closed wound in which the skin is unbroken, although damage has occurred to the tissue immediately beneath.
Crush Injury Mechanism of injury in which tissue is locally compressed by high-pressure forces.
Crush Syndrome Systemic disorder of severe metabolic disturbances resulting from the crush of a limb or other body part.
lymphatic system The interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body.
lymphocyte Any of a class of white blood cells of the vertebrate immune system, including the B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells
macrophage Any of various large, phagocytic white blood cells that develop from monocytes, are found in the spleen, liver, and other tissues, and have a variety of functions in the immune system including engulfing and destroying pathogens and dead cells
necrosis Death of cells through injury or disease, especially in a localized area of a tissue or organ.neo
neovascularization new blood vessel formation in abnormal tissue or in abnormal positions
phagocytosis the engulfing of microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles by phagocytes
puncture the act of piercing or penetrating with a pointed object.
remodeling reorganization or renovation of an old structure
rhabdomyolysis disintegration of striated muscle fibers with excretion of myoglobin in the urine
sebaceous glands Tiny skin glands that secrete an oily lubricating substance, called sebum, either into hair follicles or directly on to the surface of the skin.
sebum The secretion of the sebaceous glands.
serous fluid Any of various body fluids resembling serum, especially lymph.
skeletal muscle A usually voluntary muscle that is made up of elongated, multinucleate, transversely striated muscle fibers and is typically attached to a bone.
subcutaneous tissue The sheet of connective tissue below the dermis.
tendons Bands of fibrous connective tissue joining muscles to bones.
tension lines lines that can be extrapolated by connecting linear openings made when a round pin is driven into the skin of a cadaver, resulting from the principal axis of orientation of the subcutaneous connective tissue (collagen) fibers of the dermis
tetanus Tetanus is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the central nervous system by causing painful muscular contractions.
alpha radiation an emission of a nucleus of high kinetic energy from the nucleus of an atom undergoing radioactive decay or fission.
ampere the base unit of electric current strength, defined in terms of the force of attraction between two parallel conductors carrying current.
midbrain the short part of the brainstem just above the pons
myotome an instrument for dividing muscles.
nares the external opening of the nasal cavity
orbit the bony cavity containing the eyeball and its associated muscles, vessels, and nerves
paraplegia paraplegia Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. paraplegia [par″ah-ple´jah] impairment or loss of motor or sensory function in areas of the body served by the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral neurological segments
pia matter the innermost of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord
pinna the projecting part of the ear lying outside the head; called also pinna.
pons that part of the metencephalon lying between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain
pupil pupil Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. pupil (P) [pu´pil] the opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the eyeq
quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
blunt trauma injury caused by the collision of an object with the body in which the object does not enter the body.
epidemiology the study of disease to determine its prevalence, course, and seriousness.
Golden Period the 60 minute period after a severe injury; it is the maximum acceptable time between the injury and initiation of surgery for the seriously injured trauma patient.
Haddon Matrix a framework for classifying factors associated with injury, death, or events that may cause injury or death. The matrix can be used to identify factors that can be modified and interventions that can be taken to prevent or reduce the severity of such events.
Index of Suspicion anticipation of the severity of an injury based on the events and circumstances that appear to have caused the injury.
Mechanism of Injury the process and forces that cause trauma; the manner in which an injury occurs.
Penetrating Trauma injury occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters the body.
Trauma a physical injury or wound caused by external force or violence.
Trauma Center a hospital that has the capability of caring for acutely injured patients
Trauma Registry data retrieval system for trauma patient information, which is used to evaluate and improve the trauma system.
Trauma Triage Criteria guidelines to aid prehospital personnel in determining which trauma patients require urgent transportation to a trauma center.
acceleration the rate at which speed or velocity increases.
axial loading application of the forces of trauma along the axis of the spine; this often results in compression fractures of the spine.
ballistics the study of projectile motion and its interactions with the gun, the air, and the object it contacts.
caliber the diameter of a bullet expressed in hundredths of an inch; the inside diameter of the barrel of a handgun or rifle.
cavitation the outward motion of tissue due to a projectile's passage, resulting in a temporary cavity and vacuum.
crumple zone the region of a vehicle designed to absorb the energy of impact.
deceleration the rate at which speed or velocity decreases.
dirty bomb a nuclear weapon improvised from radioactive nuclear waste material and conventional explosives.
Drag the forces acting on a projectile in motion to slow its progress.
Dyspnea labored or difficult breathing.
Hypothalamus portion of the diencephalon producing neurosecretions important in the control of certain metabolic activities, including body temp.
Intervertebral Disk A pad of fibrocartilage that lies between adjacent vertebrae, allows slight movement of the spine, and acts as a cushion or shock absorber.
Intracerebral Hemorrhage bleeding directly into the tissue of the brain
Intracranial Pressure (ICP) pressure exerted on the brain by the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
Ipsilateral same side
Iris Pigmented portion of the eye. It is the muscular area that constricts or dilates to change size of pupil.
Lacrimal Fluid liquid that lubricates the eye
Le Fort Criteria classification system for fractures involving the maxilla.
Mean Arterial Pressure Diastolic BP plus 1/3 the pulse pressure
Medulla Oblongata lower portion of the brainstem containing the respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor centers.
Meninges three membranes that surround and protect the spinal cord. Dura mater, pia mater, arachnoid mater.
Midbrain Portion of the brain connecting the pons and cerebellum to the cerebral hemispheres.
Myotome muscle and tissue of the body innervated by spinal nerve roots.
Nares openings of the nostrils
Neurogenic Shock Type of shock resulting in the interruption of comminucation pathway between the CNS and the rest of the body, leading to decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Orbit the eye socket
Paraplegia paralysis of the lower limbs and lower trunk
Pia Mater The inner and most delicate layer of the meninges. It covers the convolutions of the brain and spinal cord.
Pinna Outer, visible portion of the ear.
Pons Process of tissue responsible for the communication interchange between the cerebellum , the cerebrum, the midbrain, and the spinal cord.
Pupil Dark opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the eye
Quadriplegia paralysis of all four limbs
Retina Light and color-sensing tissue lining the posterior chamber of the eye
Retinal detachment Condition that may be of traumatic origin and presents with patient complaint of a dark curtain obstructing a portion of the field of view
Retroauricular ecchymosis black and blue discoloration over the mastoid process (just behind the ear) that is characteristic of a basilar skull fracture. (Also called Battle's sign)
Retrograde amnesia Inability to remember events that occurred before the trauma that caused the condition
Sacrum Triangular bone, formed from five fused vertebrae, that lies between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the coccyx
Sclera The "white" of the eye
Semicircular canals The three rings of the inner ear. They sense the motion of the head and provide positional sense for the body.
Simplified Motor Score (SMS) A simplified scoring system for monitoring the neurologic status of patients with head injuries based on three elements of motor responsiveness, compared to 15 elements of eye-opening
Spinal canal A cavity that runs successively through each of the vertebrae and contains the spinal cord
Spinal meninges Protective structures that cover the spine, consisting of the dura mater, the arachnoid membrane, and the pia mater
Spinal shock The loss of spinal reflexes after injury of the spinal cord that affects muscles innervated by the cord segments below the site of the injury
Subdural hematoma collection of blood directly beneath the dura mater
Sutures Pseudojoints that join the various bones of the skull to form the cranium
Thalamus Switching station between the pons and the cerebrum in the brain
Thoracic vertebrae The 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, helping to support the thorax
Transection A cutting across a long axis; a cross-sectional cut
Vertebral column The main support for the axis of the body, consisting of 33 bones (vertebrae); also called the spinal column
Vertebral foramen A cavity that runs successively through each of the vertebrae and contains the spinal cord; (spinal canal)
Vitreous humor Clear watery fluid filling the posterior chamber of the eye. It is responsible for giving the eye its spherical shape
Zygoma The cheekbone
Aneurysm A weakening or ballooning in the wall of a blood vessel
Atelectasis Collapse of a lung or part of a lung
baux score is a system used to predict the chance of mortality due to severe burns.
beta radiation is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted in the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus
blepharospasm involuntary tight closure of the eyelids.
Heatstroke Acute, dangerous reaction to heat exposure, characterized by a body temperature usually above 105F (40.6C) and central nervous system disturbances. The body usually ceases to perspire.
Hyperbaric oxygen chamber Recompression chamber used to treat patients suffering from barotrauma.
Hyperthermia Unusually high core body temperature
Hypothalamus Portion of the diencephalon producing neurosecretions important in the control of certain metabolic activities, including body temperature regulation.
Hypothermia State of low body temperature, particularly low core body temperature.
J waves ECG deflections found at the junction of QRS complexes and the ST segments. They are associated with hypothermia and seen at core temeratures below 32C most commonly in leads II and V6 also called Osborn waves.
Mammalian diving reflex A complex cardiovascular reflex, resulting from submersion of the face and nose in water, that constricts blood flow everywhere except the brain.
Negative feedback Homeostatic mechanism in which a change in a variable ultimately inhibits the process that led to the shift
Nitrogen narcosis A state of stupor that develops during deep dives due to nitrogen’s effect on cerebral function; also called “raptures of the deep.”
Pneumomediastinum The presence of air in the mediastinum.
Pulmonary overpressure Expansion of air held in the lungs during ascent. If not exhaled, the expanding air may cause injury to the lungs and surrounding structures.
Pyrexia Fever, or above-normal body temperature
Pyrogens Any substance causing fever, such as viruses and bacteria or substances produced within the body in response to infection or inflammation.
Radiation Transfer of energy through space or matter.
Recompression Resubmission of a person to a greater pressure so gradual decompression can be achieved; often used in the treatment of diving emergencies.
Scuba Acronym for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Portable apparatus that contains compressed air that allows the diver to breath underwater.
Superficial frostbite Freezing involving only epidermal tissues, resulting in redness followed by blanching and diminished sensation; also called frostnip.
Surfactant A compound secreted by cells in the lungs that regulates the surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli, which is important in keeping the alveoli open for gas exchange.
Thermal gradient The difference in temperature between the environment and the body.
Thermogenesis The production of heat, especially within the body.
Thermolysis The loss of heat especially from the body
Thermoregulation The maintenance or regulation of a particular temperature of the body.
Trench foot A painful foot disorder resembling frostbite and resulting from exposure to cold and wetness, which can eventually result in tissue sloughing or gangrene.
Rotational Turning along the axis of abone
Resistance property of a conductor that opposes the passage of an electric current
Resolution phase final stage of the burn process in which scar tissue is laid down and the healing process is completed
Afterload The resistance a contraction of the heart must overcome to eject blood; in cardiac physiology, defined as tension of cardiac muscle during systole (contraction). AKA peripheral vascular resistance.
Aggregate To cluster or come together
Anaerobic Ability to live without oxygen
Rule of palms method of estimating the amount of body surface area burned that sizes the area burned that sizes the area burned in comparison to the patients palmar surface
Subglottic referring to the lower airway
Superficial burn burn that involves only the epidermis; reddening of the skin; first degree burn
Supraglottic referring to the upper airway
Voltage the difference of electric potential between two points with different concentrations of electrons
Anaphylactic Shock form of shock in which histamine causes general vasodilation, precapillary sphincter dilation, capillary engorgement, and fluid movement into the interstitial compartment
Arteriole A small artery
Artery a vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body tissues
Capillary one of the minute blood vessels that connects the ends of the arterioles with the beginnings of venules; where oxygen is diffused to tissue and products of metabolism enter the blood stream
Zone of coagulation area in a burn nearest the heart source that sufferes the most damage and is characterized by clotted blood and thrombosed blood vessels
Zone of hyepremia area peripheral to a burn that is characterized by increase blood flow
Zone of stasis area in a burn surrounding the zone of coagulation that is characterized by decreased blood flow
Anterior cord syndrome condition that is caused by bony fragments or pressure compressing the arteries of the anterior spinal cord and resulting in loss of motor function and sedation to pain, light touch, and temperature below the injury site
Anterograde Amnesia inability to remember events that occurred after the trauma that caused the condition
Aqueous humor clear fluid filling the anterior chamber of the eye
Arachnoid membrane middle layers of the meninges
Ascending reticular activating system a series of nervous tissues keeping the human system in a state of consciousness
Ascending tracts bundles of axons along the spinal cord that transmit signals from the body to the brain
Cardiac Contractility The ability of the heart to contract; the strength of the heart's contractions
Cardiogenic Shock Shock resulting from failure to maintain the blood pressure because of inadequate cardiac output
Catecholamine A hormone, such as epinephrine or nor epinephrine, that strongly affects the nervous and cardiovascular systems, metabolic rate, temperature, and smooth muscle
Clotting Factors The process in which an acid, while destroying tissue, forms an insoluble layer that limits further damage
Coagulation Phase Third step in the process of hemostasis, which involves the formation of a protein called fibrin that forms a network around a wound to stop bleeding, ward off infection, and lay a foundation for healing and repair of the wound
Coagulopathy Condition in which the blood's ability to clot is impaired
Compensated Shock Hemodynamic insult to the body in which the body responds effectively. Signs and symptoms are limited, and the human system continues to provide oxygenated circulation to most tissues
Autonomic hyperreflexia syndrome condition associated with the bodys adjustment to the effects of neurogenic shock
Autoregulation process that controls blood flow to the brain tissue by causing alterations in the blood pressure
Axon extension of a neuron that serves as a pathway for transmission of signals to and from the brain
Bilateral periorbital ecchymosis black and blue discoloration of the area surrounding the eyes. associated with basilar skull fracture
Blood-brain barrier has the effect of reducing the interstitial flow of proteins and other materials to the brain and spinal cord
Brown-sequard syndrome cause by cutting of one side of the spinal cord, resulting in sensory and motor loss to that side of the body
Decompensated Shock continuing hemodynamic insult to the body in which the compensatory mechanisms break down. The signs and symptoms become very pronounced, and the patient moves rapidly toward death
Direct Pressure Method of hemorrhage control that relies on the application of pressure to the actual actual site of the bleeding
Distributive Shock Is a medical condition in which abnormal distribution of blood flow in the smallest blood vessels results in inadequate supply of blood to the body's tissues and organs
Epistaxis Bleeding from the nose resulting from injury, disease, or environmental factor; a nosebleed
Erythrocytes Peripheral blood cell that contains hemoglobin; responsible for transport of oxygen to the cells.
Extrinsic Pathway The activation of clotting factors from damaged blood vessel walls and surrounding tissue.
Fascia A fibrous membrane that covers, supports and separates muscles and may also unite the skin with the underlying tissue
Fibrin protein fibers that trap red blood cells as part of the clotting process
Hematemesis vomiting of blood
Hematochezia passage of stools containing red blood
Hematocrit the percentage of the total blood volume consisting of red blood cells
Hematoma collection of blood beneath the skin or trapped within a body compartment
Hemoglobin an iron-based compound that binds with oxygen and transports it to the body cells
Hemoptysis coughing up blood that originates in the respiratory tract
Hemorrhage an abnormal internal or external discharge of blood
Hemostasis the body's three step response to local hemorrhage, comprising a vascular phase that reduces blood flow, a platelet phase in which aggressive platelets form a weak clot, and a coagulation phase that results in thr formation of fibrin, creating a strong clot
Homeostasis the natural tendency of the body to maintain a stable, steady normal environment.
Hydrostatic Pressure the pressure of liquids in equilibrium; the pressure exterted by or within liquids
Hypovolemic Shock shock caused by loss of blood or bodily fluids
Interstitial Space space between the cells
Intrinsic Pathway the activation of the clotting factors from damaged platelets within blood vessels
Irreversible Shock the final stage of shock in which organs and cells are so damaged that recovery is impossible
Lactic acid compound produced from pyruvic acid during anaerobic glycolysis
Melena black, tar like feces due to gastrointestinal bleeding
Microcirculation blood flow into the arterioles, capillaries, and venules
Neurogenic Shock type of shock resulting from the interruption in the communication pathway between the CNS and the rest of the body, resulting in decreased peripheral vascular resistance
Obstructive Shock is a form of shock associated with physical obstruction of the great vessels or the heart itself. Pulmonary embolism and cardiac tamponade are considered forms of obstructive shock. Obstructive shock has much in common with cardiogenic shock, and the two are frequently grouped together.
Oncotic Pressure the force exerted by large protein molecules in the plasma that tends to draw fluid into the capillaries, compensating for the loss of fluid that leaks out of the fluids because of hydrostatic pressure
Orthostatic Hypotension a decrease in blood pressure that occurs when a person moves from a supine or sitting position to an upright position
synovial joint type of joint that permits the greatest degree of independent motion
tendons long, thin, very strong collagen tissues that connect muscles to bones
tone state of slight contraction of muscles that gives them firmness and keeps them ready to contract
transverse fracture a break that runs across a bone perpendicular to the bone's orientation
yellow bone marrow tissue that stores fat in semiliquid form within the internal cavities of a bone
absolute zero the temperature at which all molecular motion stops (-273* C or -459*F)
acclimatization the reversible changes in the body structure and function by which the body becomes adjusted to a change in the environment
arterial gas embolism (AGE) an air bubble, or air embolism that enters the circulatory system from a damaged lung
autonomic neuropathy condition that damages the autonomic nervous condition that damages the autonomic nervous system, which usually senses changes in core temperature and controls vasodilation and perspiration to dissipate heat
barotrauma injuries caused by changes in pressure.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) rate at which the body consumes energy just to maintain stability; the basic metabolic rate (measure by the rate of oxygen consumption) of an awake, relaxed person 12-14 hours after eating and at a comfortable temperature
Barotrauma that occurs from increasing pressure during a diving descent is commonly called: "the squeeze"
conduction moving electrons, ions, heat, or sound waves through a conductor or conducting medium
convection transfer of heat via currents in liquids or gases
core temperature the body temperature of the deep tissues which usually does not vary more than a degree or so from its normal 37*C (98.6*F)
decompression sickness development of nitrogen bubbles within the tissues from a rapid reduction of air pressure when a diver returns to the surface; also called "the bends" or "dysbarism"
deep frostbite freezing involving epidermal and subcutaneous tissues, resulting in a white appearance, hard (frozen) feeling on palpation, and loss of sensation
drowning the process of experiencing respiratory impairment as the result of submersion or immersion in liquid
evaporation change from liquid to gaseous state
exertional metabolic rate rate at which the body consumes energy during activity. It is faster than the basal metabolic rate
frostbite environmentally induced freezing of body tissues, causing destruction of cells
heat cramps acute painful spasms of the voluntary muscles following strenuous activity in a hot environment without adequate fluid or salt intake
heat exhaustion a mild heat illness; an acute reaction to heat exposure
Resiliency elasticity; the ability to spring back from a force or impact to resume the original
Trajectory the path a projectile follows
Velocity the rate of motion in a particular direction in relation to time
Yaw swing or wobble around the axis of a projectile's travel
Zone of Injury in association with projectile wounds, the maximum area of injured tissue, usually extending beyond the permanent cavity formed by the projectile
Phases of Injury 5 main phases of injury during a motor vehicle accident/collision: Vehicle collision, occupant collision, organ collision, secondary impacts, additional impacts
Vehicle Collision Begins when a vehicle strikes an object (or an object strikes the vehicle). Deceleration of the vehicle.
Occupant Collision Collision of occupant with vehicle. Deceleration of the occupant.
Organ Collision Collision of internal organs with body. Deceleration of internal organs. Results as an occupant contacts the vehicle's interior annd slows or stops. Tissues behind the surface of the body collide and the body comes to a stop.
Secondary Impacts Occurs when the occupant is struck by loose objects within the vehicle.
Additional Impacts May occur when a vehicle undergoes a second impact, such as striking another vehicle, a light pole, a tree, etc.
Blast injury Injuries resulting from explosions. Categorized from Primary to Quaternary.
Primary Caused by the heat of the explosion and the overpressure wave. Tend to be the most serious and life-threatening injuries associated with explosions.
Secondary Include trauma caused by projectiles. Can cause severe bleeding.
Tertiary Caused by personnel displacement and structural collapse.
Misc./Quaternary Include any other injuries caused by the explosion mechanism and include crush injuries, burns, asphyxia, toxic exposures, and any exacerbation of preexisting or chronic illness.
Collision Types 5 main types of collisions for motor vehicle collisions: Frontal, Lateral, Oblique, Rear-End, Rollover
Frontal Frontal impact. Imposes more vehicle structure between point of impact and passenger compartment. Most common. Multiple mechanisms: Restrained, Up and over, Down and under, Ejection
Lateral Lateral impact. Crumple zone is considerably less than in frontal impact. Intrusion is likely. Increase in upper and lower extremity injuries. Responsible for higher percentage of vehicular fatalities.
Oblique Auto is struck at an angle rather than directrly to the front, side, or rear. Include four subcategories: left front, right front, left rear, and right rear. Rotation is most commonly associated with oblique impact.
Rear-end Collision force pushes the vehicle forwards. The energy of the collision thus propels the occupant forwards. May result in connective tissue/cervical spine injuries. Coup-countercoup can be caused.
Rollover Normally caused by a change in elevation and/or affects a vehicle with a high center of gravity. Vehicle impacts the ground at various points, and occupant experiences a collision with each vehicle impact.
Body Surface Area (BSA) percentage of a patient's body affected by a burn
Coagulation necrosis the process in which an acid, while destroying tissue, forms an insoluble layer that limits further damage
Current the rate of flow of an electric charge
Denature alter the usual substance of something
Emergent phase first stage of the burn process, characterized by a catecholamine release and pain-mediated reaction
Eschar hard, leathery product of a deep full thickness burn; it consists of dead and denatured skin
Extravascular space the volume contained within the cells (intracellular space) and the spaces between cells (interstitial space)
Fluid shift phase stage of the burn process in which there is a massive shift of fluid from the intravascular to the extravascular space
Full thickness burn burn that damages all layers of the skin; characterized by areas that are painless and often dry; also called third-degree burn
Gamma radiation powerful electromagnetic radiation emitted by radioactive substances with powerful penetrating properties; it is stronger than alpha and beta radiation
Gray a unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to 100 rads
Hypermetabolic phase stage of the burn process in which there is increased body metabolism in an attempt by the body to heal the burn
Intravascular space the volume contained by all the arteries, veins, capillaries, and other components of the circulatory system
Ionization the process of changing a substance into separate charged particles (ions)
Jackson's theory of thermal wounds explanation of the physical effects of thermal burns
Joule's law the physical law stating that the rate of heat production is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current
Liquefaction necrosis the process in which an alkali dissolves and liquefies tissue
Neutron radiation powerful radiation with penetrating properties between that of beta and gamma radiation
Ohm basic unit for measuring the strength of electrical resistance
Ohm's law the physical law identifying that the current in an electrical circuit is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance
Partial thickness burn burn in which the epidermis is burned through and the dermis is damaged; characterized by redness and blistering; also called second-degree burn
Rad basic unit of absorbed radiation dose
Cauda equine syndrome rare but serious condition that describes extreme pressure and swelling of the nerves at the end of the spinal cord
Central cord syndrome the most common form of incomplete spinal cord injury characterized by impairment in the arms and hands and to a lesser extent in the legs
Cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) the difference between the Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and the Intracranial Pressure (ICP). This represents the pressure gradient driving cerebral blood flow (CBF) and hence oxygen and metabolite delivery.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine. It is produced in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain. It acts as a cushion or buffer for the brain's cortex, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull
Cerebrum the anterior and largest part of the brain, consisting of two halves or hemispheres and serving to control voluntary movements and coordinate mental actions
Cheyne-stokes respirations an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in temporary apnea
Concussion a minor injury to the brain due to a blow or hit to the head
Consensual reactivity contraction of the pupil of the fellow eye in consensus with the pupil of the illuminated eye.
Contralateral occurring on or acting in conjunction with a part on the opposite side of the body.
Coup injury Damage directly to the part of the brain that was struck
Cranium the skull, especially the part enclosing the brain
Cushing’s reflex a physiological nervous system response to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) that results in Cushing's triad
Cushing’s triad increased blood pressure, irregular breathing, and a reduction of the heart rate.
Dermatome an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve
Descending tracts the pathways by which motor signals are sent from the brain to lower motor neurones
Diffuse axonal injury is a brain injury in which damage in the form of extensive lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area.
Dura mater a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord
Epidural hematoma a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull
Galea aponeurotica an aponeurosis (a tough layer of dense fibrous tissue) which covers the upper part of the cranium
Hyphema a pooling or collection of blood inside the anterior chamber of the eye 
Event amnesia inability to recall memories of a traumatic or stressful event