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transport and energy

for cells

What do cells get from their environment? food, oxygen, water, and other substances
What do cells release from their environment waste materials
Materials are moved into and out of the cells by the ____________. cell membrane
What does it mean by "cell membranes are semipermeable?" It means that some materials can pass through and others cannot and they act like a kitchen strainer
True or False: Do cell membranes have pores like our skin that allow small particles to pass through, but the larger particles get trapped and cannot pass through the membrane? True
True or False: Are molecules not constantly on motion? False: molecules are constantly on motion and as they move they spread out or diffuse
Diffusion when particles move from an area of high concentration to low concentration (particles move from where there were many to where there are few)
What is diffusion also called? passive transport
Does this process use energy? NO!
What is and example of diffusion food coloring spreading in water
Equilibrium molecules of a substance are spread out evenly throughout a space and the molecules continue to move
Osmosis the diffusion of water across a membrane
Active transport is the opposite of diffusion; particles move from an area of low concentration to high concentration (from where there are few to where there are many
Does active transport use energy? yes
Active transport also includes... the movement of LARGE particles across a membrane
Example of active transport plant cells taking in minerals from the soil even though they already have lots of minerals
Endocytosis the cell membrane folds to make a sphere around excessively large molecules; the sphere pinches off and forms a vacuole with the molecules in side; the vacuole floats around in the cytoplasm
Example of endocytosis the cell membrane uses this process to allow large materials to enter the cell
Exocytosis the Golgi bodies move packaged waste products to the cell membrane; the package fuses to the cell membrane; wastes are released outside the cell
Where do organisms get their energy? from the food they eat and cells that take chemical energy stored in food and change it into other forms so it can be used during metabolism
Metabolism the total of all chemical reactions that take place in an organism
Examples of metabolism photosynthesis, respiration, digestion
What are the two groups that organisms are divided into? producers and consumers
Producers organisms that can make their own food
Ex. of producers plants
Consumers organisms that cannot make their own food
Ex. of consumers animals and fungi
Photosynthesis the process that producers use to change light energy from the sun into chemical energy that cam be used
What does the energy in the sun change? it changes carbon dioxide and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen
What is glucose? used as food by the plant
What is oxygen given off as? waste products
Chlorophyll a green pigment that traps the sunlight
Where does photosynthesis take place? in the chloroplasts
What is the chemical equation for photosythesis? energy + 6H2O + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 energy + water + carbondioxide -> glucose + oxygen
What do consumers have to do to take in stored energy from food? eat producers (plants) or eat other consumers who have eaten plants
A food chain shows... the flow of energy throughout the ecosystem
Respiration all living things do it to release energy from food; all organisms nee some way of releasing energy from food to be able to use it
Aerobic respiration requires energy
Where does aerobic respiration take place? the mitochondria
What happens during respiration? food molecules (glucose) and oxygen get broken down and carbon dioxide, water, and energy (ATP) are given off as waste products
Is respiration the opposite of photosynthesis? yes
Created by: rhs0214