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physcial geography

Crust Is the outer layer of the earth, consists of oceanic and continental crust.
Core Is the inner layer of the earth, consists of iron and nickel.
Mantle Makes up over 75% of earths volume, consists of several layers of rock(just under the crust).
Sial Is the material the continental crust is made out of because it consists silica and aluminium.
Sima Is the material the oceanic crust is made out of because it consist of silica and magnesium.
Lithosphere Is the name given to the crust and the upper part of the mantle.
Asthenosphere is the region just below the lithosphere.
Plates Are the large ridged sections that the lithosphere is divided up into.
Continental fit Is the coasts of the continents surrounding the Atlantic ocean could fit together like a jigsaw puzzle, if the continents were moved closer.
Convection Currents Are in the mantle and are the main cause of plate movement.
Divergent Boundary Is when plates separate and move apart from one another since new rock is formed, these are constructive boundaries.
Convergent boundary Is when plates collide with one another since rock is destroyed, these are destructive boundaries.
Transform Boundary Is when plates grind past one another since rock is neither formed or destroyed, these are passive boundaries.
Subduction When one plate sinks below the other.
Fault line Is the line along which the plates slide
Active volcano Are volcanoes that are currently erupting or showing signs of unrest E.g. Mount Ethna.
Dormant volcano Are volcanoes that haven't erupted in at least 600 years and are now quiet but have a high probability that they'll erupt again E.g. Mount St Helens.
Extinct volcano Are volcanoes that haven't erupted in historical time E.g. Slemish Mountain in Antrim
vent The passage that goes up through a volcanic cone to allow lava to erupt on the surface.
Crater Is a steep-sided depression found at the top of the volcano.
Pyroclastic cloud Is a cloud consisting of volcanic ash.
Basic lava Is the lava that has less silica, causes it to be runny.
Acidic lava Is the lava that has more silica, causes it to be not as runny.
Lahar Is when ash and dust gets mixed up with rain or melted snow, a wet debris flow, a lahar can flow down slopes at speeds up to 200kmph
Intrusive Is when the magma cools deep underground and forms intrusive landforms.
Extrustive Is when the magma makes its way to the surface of the earth and cools.
Hot spot Hot mantle under the plate known as a hot spot.
Fissure Large fractures in the earths crust.
Laccoliths Are dome-like structures with a flat floor.
Sills Are horizontal sheets of volcanic rock that run parallel to the rock strata.
Dyke Are thin vertical sheets of volcanic rock that run perpendicular to the rock strata.
Batholith large platons at the surface and are greater then 100km.
Created by: kerri15



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