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Chpater 8


Chromosomes in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
histone a type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells.
chromatid one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis.
centromere the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.
chromatin the material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes; a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur.
sex chromosome one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual.
autosome any chromosome that Is not a sex chromosome
homologous chromosome chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis.
karyotype a micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
diploid a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
haploid describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that had only one set of unpaired chromosomes.
binary fission a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size.
mitosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes.
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
gamete a haploid reproductive cell that unites another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote.
interphase a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins.
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasma of a cell; follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis.
prophase the first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope.
telophase the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes.
cell plate the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two
spindle fiber one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes.
metaphase one of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator.
anaphase a phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate
synapsis the pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
tetrad the four chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together as a result of synapsis during meiosis.
crossing-over the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; can result in genetic recombination.
genetic recombination the regrouping of genes in an offspring that results in a genetic makeup that is different from that of the parents.
independent assortment the random distribution of the pairs of genes on different chromosomes to the gametes.
spermatogenesis the process by which male gametes form.
oogenesis the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum.
polar body a short-lived product of the formation of gametes by meiosis.
sexual reproduction reproduction in which gametes from two parents unite.
Created by: FarlowA20



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