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Biology Chapter 6.1

Biology Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Autotroph An organism that produces its own nutrients from inorganic substances or from the environment instead of consuming other organisms.
Photosynthesis The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
Heterotroph An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their byproducts and that cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic materials.
Light Reactions The initial reactions in photosynthesis, which are triggered by the absorption of light by photosystems 1 and 2 and include the passage of electrons along the electron transport chains, the production of NADPH and oxygen gas, and the synthesis of ATP thro
Chloroplast An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.
Thylakoid A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
Granum A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Stroma In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast.
Pigment A substance that gives another substance or mixture its color.
Chlorophyll A green pigment that is present in most plant cells, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that reacts with sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to form carbohydrates.
Carotenoid A class of pigments that are present in the thylakoid membrane of plants and that aid in photosynthesis.
Photosystem In the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, a cluster of chlorophyll and other pigment molecules that harvest light energy for the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Primary Electron Acceptor In chloroplasts, an acceptor of electrons lost from chlorophyll a; found in the thylakoid membrane.
Electron Transport Chain A series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane.
Chemiosmosis In chloroplast and mitochondria, a process in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP.
Created by: DragonT20