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abnormalpsych

abnormal psych final

QuestionAnswer
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) syndrome marked by deficits in controlling attention, inhibiting impulses, and organizing behavior to accomplish long-term goals
conduct disorder syndrome marked by chronic disregard for the rights of others, including specific behaviors, such as stealing, lying, and engaging in acts of violence
oppositional defiant disorder syndrome of chronic misbehavior in childhood marked by belligerence, irritability, and defiance, although not to the extent found in a diagnosis of conduct disorder
separation anxiety disorder syndrome of childhood and adolescence marked by the presence of abnormal fear or worry over becoming separated from one's caregiver(s) as well as clinging behaviors in the presence of the caregiver(s)
behavioral inhibition set of behavioral traits including shyness, fearfulness, irritability, cautiousness, & introversion;these children tend to avoid or withdraw from novel situations, are clingy with parents, & become excessively aroused when exposed to unfamiliar situations
elimination disorders disorders in which a child shows frequent, uncontrolled urination or defecation far beyond the age at which children usually develop control over these functions
enuresis diagnosis given to children over 5 years of age who wet the bed or their clothes at least twice a week for 3 months
bell and pad method treatment for enuresis in which a pad placed under a sleeping child to detect traces of urine sets off a bell when urine is detected, awakening the child to condition him or her to wake up and use the bathroom before urinating
encopresis diagnosis given to children who are at least 4 years old an who defecate inappropriately at least once a month for 3 months
reading disorder developmental disorder involving deficits in reading ability
mathematics disorder developmental disorder involving deficits in the ability to learn mathematics
disorder of written expression developmental disorder involving deficits in the ability to write
developmental coordination disorder disorder involving deficits in the ability to walk, run, or hold on to objects
expressive language disorder disorder involving deficits in the ability to express oneself through language
mixed receptive-expressive language disorder disorder involving deficits in the ability to express oneself through language and to understand the language of others
phonological disorder disorder involving the use of speech sounds inappropriate for one's age or dialect
stuttering significant problem in speech fluency, often including frequent repetitions of sounds or syllables
mental retardation developmental disorder marked by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, as well as deficits (relative to other children) in life skill areas, such as communication, self-care, work, and interpersonal relationships
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) syndrome that occurs when a mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy, causing the baby to have lowered IQ, increased risk for mental retardation, distractibility, and difficulties with learning from experience
pervasive developmental disorders disorders characterized by severe and persisting impairment in several areas of development
autism childhood disorder marked by deficits in social interaction (such as a lack of interest in one's family or other children), communication, and activities and interests (such as engaging in bizarre, repetitive behaviors)
Rett's disorder pervasive developmental disorder in which children develop normally at first but later show permanent loss of basic skills in social interactions, language, and/or movement
childhood disintegrative disorder pervasive developmental disorder in which children develop normally at first but later show permanent loss of basic skills in social interactions, language, and/or movement
Asperger's disorder pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social skills and activities; similar to autism but does not include deficits in language or cognitive skills
personality habitual and enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that make each person unique
personality disorder chronic pattern of maladaptive cognition, emotion, and behavior that begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues into later adulthood
odd-eccentric personality disorders disorders, including paranoid, schizotypal, and shizoid personality disorders, marked by chronic odd and/or inappropriate
paranoid personality disorder chronic and pervasive mistrust and suspicion of other people that are unwarranted and maladaptive
schizoid personality disorder syndrome marked by a chronic lack on interest in and avoidance of interpersonal relationships as well as emotional coldness in interactions with others
schizotypal personality disorder chronic pattern of inhibited or inappropriate emotion and social behavior as well as aberrant cognitions and disorganized speech
dramatic-emotional personality disorder category including antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and histrionic personality disorders, which are characterized by dramatic and impulsive behaviors that are maladaptive and dangerous
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) pervasive pattern of criminal, impulsive,callous, and/or ruthless behavior, predicated upon disregard for the rights of others and an absence of respect for social norms
psychopathy set of broad personality traits including superficial charm, a grandiose sense of self-worth, a tendency toward boredom and need for stimulation, pathological lying, an ability to be conning and manipulative, and a lack of remorse
serotonin neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of mood and impulsive responses
executive functions functions of the brain that involve the ability to sustain concentration;use abstract reasoning & concept formation; anticipate, plan, program; initiate purposeful behavior; self-monitor;& shift from maladaptive patterns of behavior to more adaptive ones
borderline personality disorder syndrome characterized by rapidly shifting and unstable mood, self-concept, and interpersonal relationships, as well as impulsive behavior and transient dissociative states
splitting in object relations theory, phenomenon wherein a person splits conceptions of self and others into either all-good or all-bad categories, neglecting to recognize people's mixed qualities
dialectical behavior therapy cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skills at managing negative emotions
histrionic personality disorder syndrome marked by rapidly shifting moods, unstable relationships, and an intense need for attention and approval, which is sought by means of overly dramatic behavior, deductiveness and dependence
narcissistic personality disorder syndrome marked by grandiose thoughts and feelings of one's own worth as well as an obliviousness to others' needs and an exploitive, arrogant demeanor
anxious-fearful personality disorders category including avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, which are characterized by a chronic sense of anxiety or fearfulness and behaviors intended to ward off feared situations
avoidant personality disorder pervasive anxiety, sense of inadequacy, and fear of being criticized that lead to the avoidance of most social interactions with others and to restrain and nervousness in social interactions
dependent personality disorder pervasive selflessness, a need to be cared for, and fear of rejection, which lead to total dependence on and submission to others
obsessive-compulsive personality disorder pervasive rigidity in one's activities and interpersonal relationships; includes qualities such as emotional constriction, extreme perfectionism, and anxiety resulting from even slight disruptions in one's routine ways
five-factor model personality theory that posits that any individual's personality is organized along five broad dimensions of personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
psychosis state involving a loss of contact with reality as well as an inability to differentiate between reality and one's subjective state
schizophrenia disorder consisting of unreal or disorganized thoughts and perceptions as well as verbal, cognitive, and behavioral deficits
positive symptoms in schizophrenia, hallucinations, delusions, and disorganization in thought and behavior (also called Type I symptoms)
negative symptoms in schizophrenia, deficits in functioning that indicate the absence of a capacity present in normal people, such as affective flattening (also called Type II symptoms)
delusions fixed beliefs with no basis of reality
persecutory delusion false, persistent belief that one is being pursued by other people
delusion of reference false belief that external events, such as people's actions or natural disasters, relate somehow to oneself
grandiose delusions elevated thinking about the self, ideas of omnipotence, and the taking of credit for occurrences not personally facilitated
delusion of thought insertion beliefs that one's thoughts are being controlled by outside forces
hallucinations perceptual experiences that are not real
auditory hallucinations auditory perception of a phenomenon that is not real, such as hearing a voice when one is alone
visual hallucinations visual perceptions of something that is not actually present
tactile hallucinations perceptions that something is happening to the outside of one's body- for example, that bugs are crawling up one's back
somatic hallucinations perceptions that something is happening inside one's body - for example, that worms are eating one's intestines
formal thought disorder state of highly disorganized thinking (also known as loosening of associations)
word salad speech that is so disorganized that a listener cannot comprehend it
smooth pursuit eye movement task in which individuals are asked to keep their head still and track a moving object (sometimes referred to as eye tracking); some people with schizophrenia show deficits on this task
working memory ability to hold information in memory and manipulate it
catatonia group of disorganized behaviors that reflect an extreme lack of responsiveness to the outside world
catatonic excitement state of constant agitation and excitability
affective flattening negative symptom of schizophrenia that consists of a severe reduction or the complete absence of affective responses to the environment
alogia deficit in both the quantity of speech and the quality of its expression
avolition inability to persist at common goal-directed activities
dementia praecox historical name for schizophrenia
prodromal symptoms in schizophrenia, milder symptoms prior to an acute phrase of the disorder, during which behaviors are unusual and peculiar but not yet psychotic or completely disorganized
residual symptoms in schizophrenia, milder symptoms following an acute phase of schizophrenia but currently has milder and less debilitating symptoms
paranoid schizophrenia syndrome marked by delusions and hallucinations that involve themes of persecution and grandiosity
disorganized schizophrenia syndrome marked by incoherence in cognition, speech, and behavior as well as flat or inappropriate affect (also called hebephrenic schizophrenia)
catatonic schizophrenia type of schizophrenia in which people show a variety of motor behaviors and ways of speaking that suggest almost complete unresponsiveness to their environment
echolalia communication abnormality in which an individual simply repeats back what he or she hears rather than generating his or her own speech
echopraxia repetitive imitation of another person's movements
undifferentiated schizophrenia diagnosis made when a person experiences schizophrenic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, but does not meet criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic schizophrenia
residual schizophrenia diagnosis made when a person has already experienced a single acute phase of schizophrenia but currently has milder and less debilitating symptoms
enlarged ventricles fluid-filled spaces in the brain that are larger than normal and suggest atrophy or deterioration in other brain tissue
prefrontal cortex region at the front of the brain important in language, emotional expression, the planning and producing of new ideas, and the mediation of social interactions
perinatal hypoxia oxygen deprivation during labor and delivery; an obstetrical complication that may be especially important in neurological development
dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain, excess amounts of which have been thought to cause schizophrenia
phenothiazines drugs that reduce the functional level of dopamine in the brain and tend to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia
mesolimbic pathway subcortical part of the brain involved in cognition and emotion
atypical antipsychotics drugs that seem to be even more effective in treating schizophrenia than phenothiazines without the same neurological side effects; they bind to a different type of dopamine receptor than other neuroleptic drugs
social selection explanation of the effects of the symptoms of schizophrenia on a person's life and the resulting tendency to drift downward in social class, as compared with the person's family or origin
expressed emotion family interaction style in which families are over-involved with each other, are overprotective of the disturbed family member, voice self-sacrificing attitudes to the disturbed family member, and simultaneously are critical, hostile, & resentful of him
chlorpromazine antipsychotic drug
akinesia condition marked by slowed motor activity, a monotonous voice, and an expressionless face, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugs
akathesis agitation caused by neuroleptic drugs
tardive dyskinesia neurological disorder marked by involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw, resulting from taking neuroleptic drugs
agranulocytosis conditioned characterized by a deficiency of granulocytes, which are substances produced by the bone marrow and fight infection; 1 to 2 percent of people who take clozapine develop this condition
assertive community treatment programs system of treatment that provides comprehensive services to people with schizophrenia, employing the expertise of medical professionals, social workers, and psychologists to meet the variety of patients' needs 24 hours per day
suicide purposeful taking of one's own life
death seekers individuals who clearly and explicitly seek to end their lives
death initiators individuals who intend to die but believe that they are simply speeding up an inevitable death
death ignorers individuals who intend to end their lives but do not believe this means the end of their existence
death darers individuals who are ambivalent about dying and take actions that increase their chances of death but that do not guarantee they will die
subintentional deaths acts in which individuals indirectly contribute to their own deaths
egoistic suicide suicide committed by people who feel alienated from others and lack social support
anomic suicide suicide committed by people who experience a severe disorientation and role confusion because of a large change in their relationship to society
altruistic suicide suicide committed by people who believe that taking their own lives with benefit society
suicide cluster when two or more suicides or attempted suicides nonrandomly occur closer together in space or time
suicide contagion phenomenon in which the suicide of a well-known person is linked to the acceptance of suicide by people who closely identify with that individual
impulsivity difficulty in controlling behaviors; acting without thinking fast
hopelessness sense that the future is bleak and there is no way of making it more positive
dichotomous thinking inflexible way of thinking in which everything is viewed in either/or terms
crisis intervention program that helps people who are highly suicidal and refers them to mental-health professionals
suicide hot lines organizations in which suicide crisis intervention is done over the phone
dialectical behavior therapy cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at teaching problem-solving skills, interpersonal skills, and skills at managing negative emotions
euthanasia killing of another person as an act of mercy
Created by: haleymot