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Electrolyte Imbalances Chapter 10

Hyponatremia A lab value less than 135
Hyponatremia Cells are swelling with too much sodium
Hyponatremia Manifestations: Diaphoresis, GI/GU loss, SIADH, anorexia, nausea, and GI problems,
Hyponatremia Neuro Changes: headache, AMS, and possible seizure activity
Hyponatremia Medications: Loop diuretics
Hyponatremia Avoid thiazide diuretics
Hyponatremia Replace sodium
Hypernatremia A lab value greater than 145
Hypernatremia Cells are loosing water causing them to srink
Hypernatremia Manifestation: dehydration, N/V, very thirsty, concentrated blood, dry/sticky mucous membrane,and tonic muscle involvement
Hypernatremia Neuro Changes: confusion, decreased LOC, seizures, and cerebral hemorrhage
Hypernatremia Medication: 1/2 NS with D5
Hypernatremia Medication: Thiazide diuretics
Hypokalemia A lab value less than 3.5
Hypokalemia Changes in sinus rhythm; dysrythmias
Hypokalemia T wave becomes flattened or inverted
Hypokalemia ST segment can be depressed
Hypokalemia Manifestations: lack of energy, not hungry, N/V
Hypokalemia Medcation: Potassium Replacement
Hypokalemia Digoxin Toxicity
Hypokalemia Diet: OJ, bananas, avocados, potatoes, apricots, tomatoes, some milk products, meat, cantaloupe, and spinnach
Hyperkalemia A lab value greater than 5
Hyperkalemia Potassium is in the ECF
Hyperkalemia Peaked T wave
Hyperkalemia QRS is wide
Hyperkalemia Ultimate concern for cardiac arrest
Hyperkalemia Manifestations: muscle twitches, tightness, tremors, slight neuro change (anxiety), diarrhea (r/t muscular activity)
Hyperkalemia Burns and trauma can heighten lab values
Hyperkalemia Medications: Kayexalate and insulin
Hyperkalemia Concern for renal failure
Hypocalcemia A lab value less than 8.5
Hypocalcemia Possible manifestation after postthyroidectomy
Hypocalcemia Manifestations: tingling of the mouth and fingers, muscle tetany, convulsions of muscles, seizure activity, bronchial spasms,
Hypocalcemia More Extreme Manifestations: respiratory arrest, bradycardia, SOB, low SPO2, stridor, nasal flaring, and intercostal breathing
Hypocalcemia Alcoholics are more at risk to develop
Hypocalcemia Vitamin D may be necessary
Hypocalcemia Diet: dairy, broccoli, rhubarb, collard greens, canned sardines/salmon
Hypocalcemia Important to keep the patient calm
Hypercalcemia A lab level greater than 10
Hypercalcemia May be related to a tumor on the parathyroid
Hypercalcemia Manifestations: Bone breakdown, decreased neuromuscular activity and motor optic activity, poor muscle control, weakness, decreased GI activity, constipation
Hypercalcemia More Extreme Manifestations: Bradycardia, heart block, decreased contractility, confusion, poor judgement, acute psychosis
Hypercalcemia Digoxin Toxicity
Hypercalcemia Medications: Loop diuretics, calcitonin, sodium/potassium phosphate, istonic fluid
Hypomagnesmia A lab value less than 1.6
Hypomagnesmia Manifestations: increased neuromuscular excitability, tremors, muscle weakness, lack f control, seizure risk, confusion, disorientation, cardiac dysrrhythmia, sudden death, tetany, numbness, and decreased deep tendon reflexes
Hypomagnesmia Can be seen in OB
Hypomagnesmia Positive for Chevostek's and Trasous
Hypocalcemia Positive for Chevostek's and Trasous
Hypomagnesmia Digoxin Toxicity
Hypomagnesmia Medication: Magnesium Sulfate
Hypomagnesmia Diet: grains, nuts, green leafy vegetables, grapefruit, brans, oranges, chocolate, and some meats
Hypermagnesmia A lab value greater than 2.6
Hypermagnesmia Manifestations: suppressed nervous system activity, weak, lethargic, lack of energy, drowsiness, decreased LOC, diminished deep tendon reflexes, decreased BP, and dysrythmias
Hypermagnesmia Concern for renal failure
Hypermagnesmia Possibly due to eating disorder, use of antacids, or excessive use of laxatives
Hypermagnesmia Medications: Calcium gluconate (emergency- IV)
Created by: sogle001