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Theory Test IV

Unit XI Oxygenation

Intrapleural pressure Pressure in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs and is always slightly negative in relation to atmospheric pressure.
Intrapulmonary pressue Pressure within the lungs that always equalizes with atmospheric pressure.
Atelectasis Collapsed alveoli in a portion of the lung.
Surfactant Lipoprotein produced by specialized alveolar cells that acts like a detergent, reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid. Without this, lungs collapse.
Hemoglobin (Hgb) Oxygen-carrying red pigment in RBCs
Oxyhemoglobin Compound of oxygen and hemoglobin
Torr Millimeters of Mercury (mmHg)
PO^2 Partial Pressure of Oxygen
Partial Pressure Pressure exerted by each individual gas in a mixture according to its concentration in the mixture.
PaO^2 Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (Simply PO^2 is commonly used for this type of partial pressure)
PvO^2 Partial pressure of oxygen in venous blood
Factors that affect binding/releasing of hemoglobin Partial pressure as oxygen diffuses from capillary blood into tissues, and blood pH.
What percentage of oxygen binds loosely with hemoglobin? 97%
What happens to the small amount of oxygen that does not bind to hemoglobin? It is dissolved and transported in the plasma as the PaO^2
Normal PaO^2 100 mmHg (100 torr)
Normal PvO^2 60 mmHg (60 torr)
Erythrocytes Red blood cells (RBCs)
Hematocrit (Hct) Amount of blood that are erythrocytes
How many Hgb molecules in one RBC? Up to 300
Make up of a Hgb molecule 2 pairs of polypeptide chains (globin); 4 heme groups that contain iron and have a strong attraction to oxygen
Anemia Decreased number of RBCs
Normal Hct 40% - 54% in men (about 5 million per cubic meter) and 37% - 50% in women (about 4.5 million per cubic meter)
Iron Essential element in formation of Hgb
Breathing patterns term Rate, volume, rhythm, and relative ease or effort of respiration.
Eupnea Normal respiration. Quiet, rhythmic, and effortless.
Tachypnea Rapid respirations. Seen with fevers, metabolic acidosis, pain, and hypoxemia.
Bradypnea Abnormally slow respiratory rate. Seen in clients woh have taken drugs such as morphine or sedatives, who have metabolic acidosis, or increased intracranial pressure.
Apnea Absence of any breathing.
Hypoventilation Inadequate alveolar ventilation. Caused by slow or shallow breathing, or both. Leads to increased levels of CO^2 and low levels of O^2.
Hyperventilation Increased movement of air into and out of the lungs. Rate and depth of respiration increases and more CO^2 is eliminated than is produced.
Kussmaul's breathing Type of hyperventilation by which the body attempts to compensate for increased metabolic acids by lowing off acid in the form of CO^2.
Two irregular rhthms Cheyne-Stokes respirations and Biot's (cluster) respirations
Cheyne-Stokes respirations Marked rhythmic waxing or waning for respirations. Can be deep or shallow with short periods of apnea. Caused by chronic disease, intracranial pressure, or drug overdose.
Biot's (cluster) respirations Shallow breaths interrupted by apnea; may be seen in clients with CNS disorder.
Orthopnea Inability to breathe easily unless sitting up-right or standing.
Dyspnea Difficulty breathing or feeling "short of breath (SOB)"
Sputum Coughed up material
Hypoxemia Reduced oxygen levels in the blood.
Hyopxia Insufficient oxygen anywhere in the body.
Cyanosis Bluish discoloration of the skin, nail beds, and mucous membranes due to reduced hemoglobin-oxygen saturation.
Tidal Volume (Vt) Volume inhaled and exhaled during normal quiet breathing.
Created by: Jnford15