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Objective G

Cellular Metabolism and Molecule Building: Importance of Food

Metabolism the chemical processes that occurs within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Energy the ability to do work
Nutrients components in food that the body needs to grow, develop and repair itself
Macronutrients nutrients that organisms must ingest in a large amount to maintain health
Enzyme a special class of proteins that speed up biological reaction by lowering the energy needed to start the reaction; known as the energy of activation; tools of the cell
Catalyst a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
Activation Energy the minimum quantity of energy that the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
Active Site a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
Catabolic Reaction destructive metabolism; the breaking down in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones, with the release of energy
Anabolic Reaction constructive metabolism; the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones
Denature to treat (a protein or the like) by chemical or physical means so as to alter its original state.
Digestive system the system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products
Mechanical Digestion Food is broken down by chewing, biting and tearing
Chemical Digestion Food is broken down by enzymes
Mouth Chews food into smaller bits
Pharynx swallows
Salivary Glands breaks down starch into sugar through chemical digestion; salivary amylase
Esophagus peristalsis; cardiac sphincter
Liver makes bile; largest organ
Gull Bladder stores bile; attached to liver
Stomach pepsin; hydrochloric acid; mucus
Small Intestine most chemical digestion happens; absorbtion; every macromolecule is broken down here
Pancreas makes enzymes, carbs, lipids and bicarbonates
Large Intestine absorbs water and vitamins; produces vitamins B and K
Peroxidase breaks down toxic peroxide in to water and oxygen
Substrate molecules that are being changed by the enzyme
Created by: ecpearce