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CHP 12

MicroBiology

QuestionAnswer
what is the goal of antimicrobial chemotherapy? to administer a drug to an infected person that destroys the infective agent without harming the host's cells THE PERFECT DRUG DOESNT EXIST!!
___________ Are common metabolic products of bacteria and fungus antibiotics
inhibiting the growth of other microorganisms in the same habitat reduces competition for nutrients antibiotics
new drugs are created by chemically altering the structure of naturally occurring antibiotics to create semi synthetic drugs chemistry and antibiotics
some natural compounds cant be obtained without the destruction of a habitat or organismal population synthetic drugs
what are the three factors that must be known before starting antimicrobial therapy the identity of the microorganism causing the infection the degree of microoranisms susceptibility (sensitivity) to various drugs the overall medical condtion of the patient
________________________ of the infectious agent from body specimens should be attempted as soon as possible Identification
the surface of a late of special medium is spread with test bacterium kirby-bauer technique
profile of antimicrobial sensitivity antibiogram
the ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans to its minimum effective(therapeutic) dose TI is 1.1 is a riskier choice than a TI of 10 therapeutic index
central concept in antibiotic treatment antimicrobial drugs should kill or inhibit microbial cells w/o simultaneously damaging host tissues the best drug in current use block the actions or synthesis of molecules in microorganisms not vertebrate cell selective toxicity
what are the magnet targets of chemotherapeutic agents? inhibition of cell wall synthesis inhibition of nucleic acid(DNA & RNA) structure and function inhibition of protein synthesis interference with cell membrane structure or function inhibition of folic acid synthesis
effective against more than one group of bacteria broad spectrum drugs
only targets a specific group ex: polymyxin & penicillins narrow spectrum drugs
can be obtained naturally or synthesized in the laboratory consists of three parts: thiazolidine ring beta lactam ring variable side chain penicillins
narrow is penicillins
broad is tetracyclines
natural parent compound and synthetic derivatives tetracyclines
first modern antimicrobial drugs synthetic: dont originate from bacteria or fungi sulfisoxazole silver sulfadiazine trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole sulfonamides or sulfa drugs
high potency broad spectrum side effects: seizures and other brain disturbances fluorquinolones
what are the three major modes of action? barring penetration of the virus into the host cell blocking the transcription and translation of viral molecules preventing maturation of viral particles
adaptive responses in which microorganisms begin to tolerate an amount of drug that would ordinarily be inhibitory due too the genetic versatility and adaptivity of microbial populations drug resistance
bacteria must be resistant to any antibiotic that they themselves produce intrinsic
bacterial resistance to a drug to which they were previously sensative acquired resistance
preparations of live microorganisms fed to animals and humans to improve intestinal biota replace microbes lost during antimicrobial therapy ex:YOGURT probiotics
start growth nutrients that encourage the growth of beneficial microbes in the intestine prebiotics
bind to the enamel of teeth, causing a permanent gray to brown discoloration can cause liver damage in pregnant women cross the placenta and are deposited in fetal bones and teeth tetracycline
most common complaint associated with oral antimicrobial therapy also caused by disruption of the intestinal microbiota (BACTERIA) diarrhea
drug that acts as an antigen that stimulates the allergic response allergy
beneficial resident species are destroyed through antibiotic therapy microbes once small in number begin to overgrow and causes diseases superinfection
Created by: CaylahMone