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EBR EMS

EBR EMS Chapter 15 Definitions

QuestionAnswer
alimentary canal the digestive tract as a whole
bolus a small, rounded mass of masticated food to be swallowed
cholecystectomy the surgical removal of the gallbladder
chyme partially digested food mixture leaving the stomach
deglutition swallowing
dental caries decay of teeth
diarrhea defecation of liquid feces
digestion the breakdown of food materials either mechanically or chemically
duodenal papilla ducts located in the middle third of the duodenum that empty pancreatic digestive juices and bile from the liver into the small intestine; there are two ducts, the major duodenal papillae and the minor papillae
duodenum the first subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs
emulsify in digestion, when bile breaks up fat
feces waste material discharged from the intestines
fractal geometry the study of surfaces with a seemingly infinite area, such as the lining of the small intestine
frenulum the thin membrane that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
gastroesophageal reflux disease also known as GERD, a set of symptoms resulting from a hiatal hernia that allows stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus; symptoms include heartburn or chest pain and coughing or choking during or just after a meal
gastroesophageal sphincter a ring of smooth muscle around the opening of the stomach at the lower end of the esophagus that acts as a valve to allow food to enter the stomach but prevents stomach contents from moving back into the esophagus
greater omentum a pouchlike extension of the visceral peritoneum
hiatal hernia a bulging out of the stomach through the opening of the diaphragm where the esophagus normally passes; this condition may prevent the valve between the esophagus and stomach from closing, thus allowing stomach contents to flow back into the esophagus
ileum the distal portion of the small intestine
jaundice abnormal yellowing of skin, mucous membranes, and white of eyes
jejunum the middle third of the small intestine
lumen the hollow space within a tube
malocclusion abnormal contact between the teeth of the upper jaw and lower jaw
mastication chewing
mesentery a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity
peristalsis wavelike, rhythmic contractions of the stomach and intestines that move food material along the digestive tract
peritoneal space small, fluid-filled space between the visceral and parietal layers that allows the layers to slide over each other freely in the abdominopelvic cavity
plica multiple circular folds
pyloric sphincter sphincter that prevents food from leaving the stomach and entering duodenum
rugae wrinkles and folds
ulcer a necrotic open sore or lesion
uvula cone-shaped process hanging down from the soft palate that helps prevent food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities
villus fingerlike folds covering the plicae of the small intestines
Created by: hjkruse