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Theory Test IV

Unit IX Nutrition

2 types of sugars Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
Disaccharides Carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides Single molecule carbohydrate.
2 types of starches Polysaccharides and Fiber
Polysaccharides Composed of branched chains of dozens, sometimes hundreds, of glucose molecules.
Sugars Simplest form of carbohydrates, are water soluble and are produced naturally by plants and animals.
Starches Insoluble, non-sweet forms of carbohydrate.
Fiber Complex carbohydrate derived from plants, supplies roughage, or bulk, to the diet.
1 kilocalorie unit of energy of 1,000 calories (equal to 1 large calorie)
Glycogen Large polymer (compound molecule) of glucose mostly stored in lever cells and skeletal muscle.
What happens to glucose that cannot be stored at glycogen? Converted into fat.
Glycogenesis Formation of glycogen from sugar
Percentage of cells made from protein in the body 3/4 of body solids are protiens
Nine essential amino acids HILLMPTTV - histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine.
Nine non-essential amino acids AACGGHPST - alanine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, hydroxyproline, proine, seine, and tyrosine.
Complete proteins Contain all of the essential amino acids plus many nonessential ones.
Essential amino acid definition Cannot be manufactured in the body
Nonessential amino acid definition Body can manufacture.
Food sources of complete proteins Meat, fish, poultry, dairy, eggs.
Complementary proteins Combination of two or more vegetables.
Anabolism Protein metabolism that builds tissue.
Catabolism Protein metabolism that breaks down tissue. Occurs primarily in the liver.
Nitrogen Balance Protein metabolism that is a measure of the degree of protein anabolism and catabolism.
What is PCM? Protein-Calorie Malnutrition. Inadequate protein or calorie intake.
1 gram of protein = how many calories? 4 calories
Lipids Organic substances that are greasy and insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol or ether.
Fats Lipids that are solid at room temperature.
Oils Lipids that are liquid at room temperature.
Fatty Acids Made up of carbon chains and hydrogen. The basic structural units of most lipids.
Saturated fatty acids All carbon atoms are filled to capacity (saturated) with hydrogen. (Butyric acid in butter).
Unsaturated fatty acids Can accommodate more hydrogen atoms than it currently does. Has a double bond between two carbon atoms that are not attached to a hydrogen atom.
Monounsaturated fatty acid One double bond between a carbon atom that is not bonded to a hydrogen atom.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid Has more than one double bond between carbon atoms not bonded to a hydrogen atom.
Glycerides Simple lipids; most common.
Triglycerides Contain three fatty acids and account for more than 90% of the lipids in food and in the body.
Cholesterol Fat-like substance mostly synthesized in the liver, but some is absorbed from the diet.
Function of cholesterol Creates bile acids and synthesizes steroid hormones.
LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) The "bad" cholesterol. Up to 70% of the total serum cholesterol is present in this. Adults desirable <130mg/dL
HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) The "good" cholesterol. Produced by the liver and intestines. Adult desirable: Men: 35-65 mg/dL, Women: 35-80 mg/dL
Vitamin Organic compound that cannot be manufactured by the body and is needed in small quantities to catalyze metabolic processes.
Water-soluble vitamins The body cannot store these; thus, people must get a daily supply in the diet. (B and C complex vitamins)
Fat-soluble vitamins The body can store these and are not necessary to have a daily supply. (A, D, E, and K with limits to the amount of E and K)
Minerals Found in organic compounds, as inorganic compounds, and as fee ions. (Calcium and Phosphorus make up 80% of these in the body)
Energy balance Relationship between the energy derived from food and the energy used by the body.
Caloric value Amount of energy that nutrients or foods supply to the body.
BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) Rate at which the body metabolizes food to maintain the energy requirements of a person who is awake and at rest.
REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) Calories required to maintain life.
How to achieve Ideal Body Weight (IBW) Maintaining a balance between the expenditure of energy and the intake of nutrients.
IBW (Ideal Body Weight) The optimal weight recommended for optimal health.
BMI (Body Mass Index) For people older than 18, it is an indicator of changes in body fat stores and whether a person's weight is appropriate for height, and may provide a useful estimate of malnutrition.
Other indirect body mass measures Percent of body fat. Waist circumference. Skin flod testing.
Rule of 5 Female IBW. 100 lb for 5 ft of height + 5 lb for every inch over 5 ft. +/- 10% for body frame size.
Rule of 6 Male IBW. 106 lb for 5 ft of height + 6 lb for every inch over 5 ft. +/- 10% for body frame size.
Developmental Nutritional considerations Infancy/adolescence: Rapid periods of growth require increased needs for nutrients. Older adults: may need fewer calories and dietary changes due to health and health risks.
Sexual Nutrition considerations Men: larger muscle mass = greater need for calories and proteins. Women: menstruation = require more iron than men prior or menopause.
BMI <18.5 Underweight BMI
BMI 18.5-24.9 Normal BMI
BMI 25.0-29.9 Overweight BMI
BMI >30.0 Obese BMI (Extreme Obesity = 40.0 +)
Malnutrition Lack or excess of necessary or appropriate food substances.
Overnutrition Caloric intake in excess of daily energy requirements, resulting in storage of energy in the form of adipose tissue.
Undernutrition Intake of nutrients insufficient to meet daily energy requirements because of inadequate food intake or improper digestion and absorption of food.
Created by: Jnford15