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Biology

Chapter 29

QuestionAnswer
charophytes green algae that are the closest relatives of land plants
traits land plants share with charophytes rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins, structure of flagellated sperm, formation of a phragmoplast
sporopollenin a layer of a durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out
five key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophytes alternation of generations, multicellular, dependent embryos, walled spores produced in sporangia, multicellular gametangia, apical meristems
alternation of generations a reproductive cycle where plants alternate between two multicellular stages
gametophyte haploid and produces haploid gametes by mitosis
diploid sporophyte which produces haploid spores by meiosis
sporangia spores in organs produced by sporophyte
sporocytes diploid cells that undergo meiosis to generate haploid spores
gametangia organs that are produced within gametes
archegonia female gametangia that produce eggs and are the site of fertilization
antheridia male gametangia that produce and release sperm
apical meristems where plants sustain continual growth
cuticle a waxy covering of the epidermis
stomata specialized cells that allow for gas exchange between the outside air and the plant
lycophytes club mosses and their relatives
monilophytes ferns and their relatives
seed an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat
gymnosperms the “naked seed” plants, including the conifers
angiosperms the flowering plants
liverworts phylum Hepatophyta
mosses phylum Bryophyta
hornworts phylum Anthocerophyta
rhizoids anchor gametophytes to substrate
xylem conducts most of the water and minerals and includes tube-shaped cells called tracheids
lignin strengthen water-conducting cells are and provide structural support
phloem has cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
roots organs that anchor vascular plants
leaves organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants, thereby capturing more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis
microphylls leaves with a single vein
megaphylls leaves with a highly branched vascular system
sporophylls modified leaves with sporangia
sori clusters of sporangia on the undersides of sporophylls
strobili cone-like structures formed from groups of sporophylls
heterosporous all seed plants and some seedless vascular plants
Phylum Lycophyta includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts
Phylum Monilophyta includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives
Created by: danat214