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earthquake the shaking and trembling that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
deformation the change in the shape or volume of the crust
shearing pushes a mass of rock in 2 opposite directions
fault a break in Earth's crust where slabs of crust slip past each other
strike slip fault the rocks on either side of the fault slide past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion, caused by shearing
normal fault one block of rock lies above the fault while the other block lies below it, caused by tension
reverse fault the hanging wall slide upward past the footwall, caused by compression
folds a bend in rock that forms when compression shortens and thickens part of the crust
anticline a fold that bends upwards in an arch
syncline a fold that bends downward in the middle to form a bowl
plateau a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
focus the point beneath Earth's surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake
epicenter the point on the surface directly above the focus
seismic waves vibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake travels outward in all directions from the focus
seismograph detects seismic waves by recording ground movements
volcano a weak spot in the crust where molten material, or magma, comes to the surface
magma a molten mixture of rock forming substances, gasses and water from the mantle
lava magma that reaches the surface
ring of fire a major volcanic belt, formed by the many volcanoes that rim the Pacific Ocean
hot spot an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust like a blow torch, often lie in the middle of continental or oceanic plates, far from any plate boundaries
magma chamber magma that collects in a pocket inside a volcano
crater a bowl-shaped area around a volcano's central vent where lava may collect
dormant a volcano that is not active now but my become active again the in the future
geyser a fountain of water and steam that erupts from the ground
pahoehoe hot, fast moving lava
aa cooler, slow moving lava
shield volcano forms when thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers, this gradually builds a wide, gently sloping mountain
caldera the huge hole left by the collapse of a volcanic mountain, the hole is filled with the places of the volcano that have fallen inward, as well as some lava and ash
volcanic neck forms when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe
batholith formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust; large rock masses that forms the core of many mountain ranges
Created by: leannezecco