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biochem questions

what does organic mean? (and organic compounds) no chemicals/preservatives (organic compounds has to have carbon and hydrogen and can have other elements)
Give some examples of organic compounds glucose, methane gas, ethanol
What is an inorganic compound? can have hydrogen OR carbon
give an example of an inorganic compound h2o (molecule of life)
What percent of our body is water? 65%
Why can we not live without water? All the chemical reactions in our body need to occur in water (about 3 days without water and you die)
What is cohesion and what is adhesion? Cohesion is the rubbing together of two of the same molecule and adhesion is the rubbing together of unlike molecules (water and another substance)
What are the classes of organic compounds and their major elements Carbohydrates and lipids have carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and proteins and nucleic acids have carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What is a monomer? the most simple subunit
If it ends in -ose, it is a... sugar
monosaccharide and examples one simple sugar: glucose, fructose, and galactose
disaccharide and examples 2 simple sugars combined: maltose (glucose and glucose), sucrose (glucose and fructose), and lactose (glucose and galactose)
what is an oligosaccharide? 3-20 monomers
polysaccharide and examples many simple sugars connected: starch, cellulose, chitin, and glycogen
how do we connect monomers? dehydration synthesis (take away water to create a bond)
how do we break apart polymers? hydrolysis (add water)
what are carbohydrates used for? carbs are used for energy
Examples of monomers of lipids glycerol- 3 hydro-carbons with 3 carboxyl groups; fatty acid- chain of hydro-carbons with a carboxyl group at the end
What is an unsaturated fatty acid? liquid at room temp. and very crooked (healthier)
what is a saturated fatty acid? solid at room temp. and straight (more unhealthy)
What is 3 fatty acids and a glycerol? triglyceride lipid
what is a phospholipid? fat that goes into the making of our cell membranes- very important in the body- contains a phosphate in its molecules
Why are saturated fats bad for you? create blockage in your body- can cause high cholesterol which can cause fatty plaques to grow inside your blood vessels and it could grow enough to block blood flow
What are hydrogenated fats? add hydrogen to a liquid unsaturated fats to make them solid (ex. margarin)
what are proteins made up of? amino acids
How do you connect multiple peptides? dehydration synthesis
What happens if a polypeptide loses its shape? it stops working because she determines your job and also, proteins are not functional until they have reached their final shape
What is the first stage of a protein? (sequence of shape formation #1) peptides connected by peptide bonds
what is the second stage of a protein? ((sequence of shape formation #2) alpha helix and beta pleated sheet structure held by hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding what do you think of? with a lot of hydrogen bonding, frizzy hair, and with less H-bonding, pin straight hair (heat breaks H-bonds)
what is tertiary structure? it is a structure of a protein and a folded individual peptide
what is quaternary structure? it is a structure of a protein and it is multiple polypeptide chains conncected
What are enzymes? great example of protein and substrate needs to find the enzyme (the -ase ending)
what are catalysts? affect the rate of reaction without being consumed or changed by the reaction
explain enzyme inhibition a substrate is trying to join an enzyme's active site, and it can be blocked by a competitive or a noncompetitive inhibitor, and now that the inhibitor changed the form of the active site, the substrate can not connect with the enzyme.
Explain the affects of heat on the speed of enzyme action an enzyme works best at its optimal temperature and if it goes below or past it, it will not work as well. If it goes higher than the optimal temp., it will start to denature, not die!! (changed shape)
Explain the affects of pH on the speed of enzyme action an enzyme works best at its optimal pH and will denature fast i it goes over it but not as fast as if the temperature did so
Explain the affects of substrate concentration on the speed of enzyme action once the enzyme reaches its optimal saturation of the enzyme with the substrate, it reaches it max, so it can not work any faster than it can (I Love Lucy scene)
what affects the speed of enzyme action? coenzymes
What do enzymes do to activation energy? enzymes lower the activation energy (takes off waste of extra movement)
what is the monomer of nucleic acids? nucleotide (phosphate sugar base)
what is a pyrimidine? a nitrogenous base with one ring (ex: uracil, thymine, cytosine)
what is a purine? a nitrogenous base with 2 rings (ex: adenine, guanine)
What is DNA double-stranded genetic material; blueprint of the body passed from parent to child; TAGC
what is a phosphodiester linkage? type of bond that connects a sugar to a phosphate to make the sides of DNA
How many chromosomes does one person get from each parent? 23 molecules from mother and 23 molecules from father
what is a histone? nuclear protein that DNA coils itself around
What is RNA? single-stranded and has the sugar ribose; lacks thymine and has uracil instead-it is a messenger from the nucleus to other parts of the cell
Can RNA act as an enzyme? yes
Created by: sarahfishkin



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