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Diseases

Viral, Bacterial, and Prion Diseases

QuestionAnswer
What are Prions made of? a single protein of which the arrangement determines the disease
How do prions infect a cell? a good protein prpc is produced by the cell and binds to the membrane, prpsc reacts with prpc on the surface and converts it to prpsc, prpsc continue to replicate, kills the cell
What do prions cause? neurological diseases by causing plaques called amyloid to form in the CNS, characterized by holes in the tissue of the brain
What is CJD? Cretzfeldt-Jakob Disease, spongiform encephalopathy (degenerative changes in the cns)
What is Kuru? spongiform encephalopathy
What is GSD? genetic neurodegenerative disease
What is FFI? fatal familial insomnia disease, genetic neurodegenerative disease with progressive untreatable insomnia
What are virus' made of? a protein capsid and nucleic acids (dna or rna) inside
How are virus' released? viral capsid, viral protein sent to membrane, virus contacts proteins, virus buds off taking some membrane in an envelope, proteins in membrane help the virus contact proteins in the cell they want to infect
How do virus' infect? attachment, entry and uncoating, portion of viral rna transcribed forming mrna, biosynthesis- viral rna replicated and viral proteins are made, late translation- capsid proteins are synthesized, maturation- virons mature, released
What is a tropism? the cells a virus will bind to that it is specific for
What are some latent viral infections? cold sores, leukemia, shingles
What are some persistent viral infections? cervical cancer, hiv, liver cancer, encephilitis, enterovirus infection
What are the components of influenza? 8 rna strands, hammaglutinin and neuraminin which are the proteins in the surface that can change
What is Antigenic drift? small gradual changes occurring through point mutations to produce the main surface proteins, occurs unpredictably and results in minor changes to surface proteins of influenza
What is antigenic shift? abrupt major changes to produce a novel influenza strain
What is an antigen? any molecule that encourages an immune response against itself
What is a tumor? abnormal new cell growth due to a loss of regulation of cell division
What is anaplasia? reversion to a more primitive form: loss of specialized metabolic activities, reliance on anaerobic metabolism, aberrant shapes, often invade surrounding tissues
What is a benign tumor? compact mass that remains in place
What is a malignant tumor? a cancer that spreads
What is influenza and its symptoms? contagious respiratory illness. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. Symptoms: Fever* or feeling feverish/chills, Cough, Sore throat, Runny or stuffy nose, Muscle or body aches, Headaches, Fatigue (tiredness), Some peop
What is HIV? HUMAN-only transferred to humans IMMUNODEFICIENCY- immune system it weakend and destroyed VIRUS
How is HIV transmited? unprotected sex, injection drug use, organ transplants, blood transfusions, vertical transmission (in utero, delivery, breast feeding)
What is HIV made of? 2 strands RNA, structural proteins (capsid, matrix), replication enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease), envelope (lipid bilayer, envelope proteins)
How does HIV bind? attach to t cells and macrophages, fusion- once bound the virus is released into the capsid, RNA has to be transferred into DNA which allows it to integrate into the human genome
How is HIV treated? HAART- highly active antiretroviral therapy: fusion inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, integrase inhibitor, protease inhibitor
How is HIV diagnosed? routine, targeted, diagnostic testing ELISA test, western blot test, rapid test
What is an ELISA test? enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, uses blood serum or plasma, it is positive with a color change
What is a western blot test? uses blood or plasma, is positive when there are at least two antigens present, indeterminate when one antigen is present and negative with no antigens
What is acute HIV? fever, sores, headache, rash
What is chronic HIV? tumors, rash
When is therapy for HIV started? at 350 cd4 and t cell count becomes classified as AIDS at 200 cd4 and t cell count
What are some opportunistic infections associated with HIV? pneumonia, kaposis's sarcoma- cancer
What indicates resistance to HIV? a mutation in the ccr5 receptor which HIV binds to along with cd4
Who is the berlin patient? 2009, had leukemia and HIV, heterozygous for ccr5 mutation, recieved bone marrow from hiv resistant person, killed the cells in the bosy with hiv
What is the rubella organism? rubivirus, single stranded RNA virus
what are the symptoms of rubella? mild, pink, flat rash swollen lymph nodes arthritis encephalitis (in adults)
what are the risks of rubella? causes defects in dna replication, causes arthritis
how is rubella transmitted? transmitted only in humans, incubation period of 7-14 days, respiratory tract is infected, contagious two weeks after rash: coughing sneezing
how is rubella diagnosed? visual exam of the rash and a test for antibodies to confirm
how is rubella treated and prevented? no treatment, MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella)
What is congenital rubella syndrome? transmitted mom to baby ad causes birth defects or miscarriage
rubella in the US since 2012, 10 cases in the us all contracted outside the states
What causes west nile virus? arthropod borne virus, enveloped single strand rna
How is west nile virus tansmitted? spread by mosquito, can be spread by blood transfusions, organ transplants, large mammals are dead end hhosts
What are the signs and symptoms of west nile virus? 70-80% show no symptoms 1 in 5 develop flu like symptoms less than one percent develop a neurological infection: meningitis, encephalitis
How is west nile virus diagnosed? physical exam, brain scan or spinal tap in the case of possible neurological infection
How is west nile virus treated? mild symptoms: over the counter pain meds, most people recover on their own severe cases: hospitalization, iv, prescribed pain meds
How is west nile virus prevented? avoid mosquito bite, wear long clothing, use bug repellent
What are flu like symptoms? Fever* or feeling feverish/chills. Cough. Sore throat. Runny or stuffy nose. Muscle or body aches. Headaches. Fatigue (tiredness) Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults.
What causes chicken pox? varicella-zoster virus VZV, enveloped double stranded dna
What is another name for chicken pox? Varicella
How is chicken pox transmitted? airborne droplets and direct contact between humans
How is chicken pox diagnosed? appearance of lesions, antibody tests
How is chicken pox treated? typically self limiting- dont scratch, avoid heat and humidity acetaminophen and antihistamines acyclovir- given to reduce the duration of chicken pox
How is chicken pox prevented? get the chicken pox vaccine- first dose 12-18 months, second dose before starting school avoid individuals with chicken pox or shingles
What are the symptoms of chicken pox? primary- virus travels to spleen causing fever, discomfort, loss of appetite secondary- vius travels to the skin causing blisters on the skin
What causes polio? polio virus, single stranded rna and protein capsid, it is specific to humans and there are three strains
What are the symptoms of polio? 90% asymptomatic 5% minor- temporary fever, headache, sore throat, discomfort non paralytic- 2% abnormal reflexes, muscle spams, back pain paralytic- <2% paralysis, respiratory muscles compromised
How is polio transmitted? contaminated food or water droplets from sneezing or coughing
How is polio diagnosed? test for polio virus in throat secretions, stool, cerebrospinal fluid diagnose from abnormal reflexes, difficulty swallowing or breathing
How is polio treated? physical therapy, pain killers, ventilation systems for patients with paralyzed respiratory muscles
How is polio prevented? Salk's vaccine, Sabin's vaccine- gave 1 in 1million the disease Salk's use in US
What causes lyme disease? Borrelia Burgdorferi bacteria, gram -, spirochete
What are the symptoms of lyme disease? rash and flu like symptoms 80% neurological nad cardiovascular issues (meningitis, encephalitis) 10% sever arthritis 80%
How is lyme disease diagnosed? elisa and western blot tests to look for antibodies
How is lyme disease treated? if caught early treated with antibiotics (doxycycline and amoxicillin) for 3-4 weeks 1-2 rounds for complete erradication, can have long term symptoms if treated late, many have to take antiinflammatory for arthritis
How is lyme disease prevented? no vaccin, check yourself and pets for ticks, wear tight fitted clothing, wash cloths after being outside
How is lyme disease transmitted? through the bite of a tick, people in highly endemic areas (north east) are more likely to get it
what causes rabies? the rabies virus, bulletshaped, robinucleoprotien core with rna and glycoprotein spikes
how is rabies transmitted? bite of an infected animal typically a bat, raccoon, skunk, fox pets can be infected too
what are the symptoms of rabies? flu like, prickling around the bite site, anxiety, confusion, agitation, cerebral dysfunction, delirium, abnormal behavior, hallucinations, insomnia when clinical symptoms present the disease is fatal
how is rabies diagnosed? direct florescent antibody test (dead animals), skin biopsies, saliva tests for antibodies, spinal fluid test for antibodies, amplification methods
how is rabies treated? basic wound care, vaccine: never treated before HRIG and vaccine given on day 0, 3, 7, 14 if treated before only get the doses of the vaccine
how is rabies prevented? get pets vaccinated, call animal control to removed unknown animals from the area, get medical attention after injury from any animal
what causes rsv? respiratory syncytial virus
what is rsv? respiratory syncytial vius
what are risk factors for rsv? age, weakened immune system, time of year (fall, spring), exposure
what are the symptoms of rsv? runny nose, decreased appetite, low grade fever, coughing, in infants: irritability, decreased activity, breathing problems
how is rsv transmitted? directly and indirectly
how is rsv diagnosed? signs and symptoms, physical exam, nasal swab, rapid antigen test
how is rsv treated and prevented? no vaccine, wash hands, disinfect contaminated surfaces, prevention- medication given to children during peak seasons (prevention) pain medication, hospitalization, nebulizers (treatment)
what causes hps? hantavirus, 3 segments of rna (s, m, l) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
how is hps transmitted? breathing in air infected with rat feces and urine, being bitten by an infected rat
what are the symptoms of hps 1-4day, fever, muscle aches, stomach ache, chills late symptoms include shortness of breath when the lungs fill with fluid 4-10 days
how is hps diagnosed and treated? often confused with the flu but is diagnosed based on if youve spent a lot of time around rats there is no vaccine for treatment and you are typically administered to the hospital to help with breathing and hydration
how is hps prevented? seal your home, set mouse traps, dont leave food out
what causes mumps? paramyzovirus, sphere shaped, covered with glycoprotein
how is mumps transmitted? spreads through saliva or mucus by coughing, sneezing, or contact with unsanitized objects
what are the signs and symptoms of mumps? appear 16-18 days after infection inflamed salivary glands- parotitis puffy cheeks, swollen jaw, flu like symptoms
how is mumps diagnosed? virus culture, buccal or oral swab which is fasest, blood test for antibodies
how is mumps treated and prevented? treatment- no cure, antibiotics dont work, recover two weeks later prevented- measels, mumps, rubella vaccine
what are the complications of mumps? inflammation of testes, ovaries, breast tissue, brain, tissue covering brain and spinal cord
what causes genital warts? human papillomavirus, naked double stranded dna strains 6 and 11 cause genital warts
how is genital warts transmitted? unprotected sex, unprotected youth and homosexual men are most at risk
what are the symptoms of genital warts? flesh colored soft bumps on genitalia, anus, rectum, and surrounding skin itching, burning, pain in the area bleeding with intercourse
how are genital warts diagnosed? observation, acetic acid solution spread to detect similar warts, for women- pap smear, hpv test, colpscopy
how are genital warts treated? medication at home (imiquimod, podophyllin, podofilox) or at the doctors (trichloroacetic acid) surgery
how are genital warts prevented? abstinence, mutual monogamy, condoms, vaccine for ages 9-26 for both sexes (gardasil)
what causes ebola? a deadly virus from the filoviridae family, made of rna
how is ebola transmitted? contact with bodily fluids of the animal host or infected humans
what are the symptoms of ebola? 2-21 days after exposure, not contagious until showing symptoms, fever, headache, diarrhea, muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, stomach pain, bleeding
how is ebola diagnosed? difficult to diagnose, can take 3 days to reach a detectable level, isolate the virus in culture, blood test, pcr
how is ebola treated and prevented? treated- no cure or vaccine, iv fluids, oxygen, electrolytes, blood pressure monitoring, recovery based on immune response prevention- avoid contact with infected, use proper protective equipment, good hygiene
what causes hep b? hep b virus enters the bloodstream and infects the liver
how is hep b transmitted? sexual, vertical transmission blood transfusions intravenous drug use
what are the symptoms of hep b? acute/chronic hep b, flu like symptoms, itcy skin, jaundice
how is hep b diagnosed? blood tests, medical imaging, checking for liver damage
how is hep b treated? vaccine, acute- may not need treatment, rest and fluids chronic- antiviral medications (iamivudine, adefovir), have for the rest of your life
how is hep b prevented? practice safe sex, get the vaccine, cleaning needles before blood transfussions
what causes the measles? measles virus, rubeola
how are the measles transmitted? inhaling airborne droplets, coughing, sneezing, picking nose, touching mouth
what are the symptoms of the measles? first- fever, dry cough, runny nose, sore throat, inflamed eyes telling signs- koplik spots- white lesions on the lining of the mouth and throat skin rash- widespread, head to toe, blotchy raised red dots
how is the measles diagnosed? observation, blood tests
how is the measles treated and prevented? treated- no treatment, for nonimmunized people they can get immune serum globulin and a post exposure vaccine to lessen the symptoms prevention- measles, mumps, rubella vaccine, and good hygiene
what causes tb? myobacterium, highly aerobic, opportunistic pathogen
how is tb transmitted? through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, speaks, contaminated objects, food, water
how is tb diagnosed? mantoux skin test (PPD), chest xray, examination of sputum
what is latent tb? cannont spread and infect others, no symptoms, can become active if not treated promptly
what is active tb? bodys immune system contained the infection, contagious symptoms: weakness, loss of appetite, night sweats, weight loss, coughing up blood, breathlessness, chest pain
how is latent tb treated? medication to prevent active tb (isoniazid, kills bacteria) BCG vaccine given at birth
how is active tb treated? curable if diagnosed early, isolate patient until treated, treated with drugs
what causes syph? bacteria treponema pallidium, spirochete affects urinary and reproductive system
how is syph transmitted? sexual contact, mother to fetus
what are the symptoms of syph? four stages: primary, secondary, latent, terciary based on stage, range from: rash, fever, headaches, body aches, dementia, paralysis, blindness
how is syph diagnosed? MHATP blood test (test for an antigen response)
how is syph treated? injection of the antibiotic (benzathine penicillin G) not effective in terciary stage
how is syph prevented? practicing safe sex, there is a stable incident level
what causes gonorrhea? bacteria neisseria gonorrhoeae, grows and multiples in mucus membranes
how is gonorrhea transmitted? vaginal, anal, or oral sex, pregnant woman to child through child birth
what are the risk factors of getting gonorrhea? a new sex partner, multiple sex partners, having a partner with sti
what are the symptoms of gonorrhea? often no signs, painful urination, abnormal discharge from genitals, testicular pain, women may have pain in lower abdomen, sore throat
how is gonorrhea diagnosed? sample from symptomatic area and examine it under a microscope
how is gonorrhea treated? antibiotics (ceftriaxone-injection, azithromycin-oral, doxycycline-oral)
how is gonorrhea prevented? abstinence, condoms, getting partners screened
what are complications of gonorrhea? pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, infection spreading to the joints, increased risks of hiv,aids and complications in babies
what causes cholera? bacteria vibrio cholera, faculatative anaerobe, gram -
how is cholera transmitted? ingesting food or water that is infected, not properly cooking seafood
what are the symptoms of cholera? rice-water diarrhea, extreme dehydration
how is cholera diagnosed and treated? diagnosed- stool sample treated- rehydrating with salt packets or iv, antibiotics if needed
how is cholera prevented? maintaining clean water sources, cook seafood well, vaccine available however it is not very effective
what causes pertussis? gram - bordtella pertussis, aerobic a highly contagious respiratory infection, affects children under 6mnths and people when the vaccine wear off
what are the symptoms of pertussis? flu like, thick mucus in airway, coughing, and wheezing
how is pertussis diagnosed? chest xray, nose and throat culture-easiest, blood test
how is pertussis treated? antibiotics, vaccination at a young age, tdap (tetanus, diptheria, pertussis) booster vaccine, infants are hospitalized
what are the complications of pertussis? pneumonia, breathing complications, brain damage
what causes strep throat? bacteria streptooccus pyogenes (pus making or generating, always the sign of a immune reaction, wbc go to infection site and die)
what are the symptoms of strep? sudden severe sore throat, pain when swallowing, fever over 101, swollen tonsils and lymph nodes, white or yellow spots on the back of a bright red throat less common: red skin rash, vomiting, not feeling hungry, body aches
how is strep diagnosed? physical exam, throat culture(1-2 days), rapid test (10min)
how is strep treated? amoxicillin, azithromycin, clindamycin
how is strep transmitted? direct and indirect contact
how is strep prevented? avoid contact with infected, reduce stress, rest, hand washing
what is myoplasma pneumonia? walking pneumonia, we all have it in our lungs
what causes tetanus? bacteria clostridium tetani, gram +, travels through blood
how is tetanus transmitted? contaminated wounds, sepsis from hospital catheters portals of entry: open wound, puncture, oral ingestion
what are the signs and symptoms of tetanus? cholinesterase doesn't break down acetylcholine in the synapse, increased rigidity and spasms of skeletal muscle, lockjaw, stiffness of neck, difficulty swallowing, rigidity of skeletal muscles
how is tetanus treated and prevented? treated- clean the wound, muscle relaxants, administration of human tetanus immunoglobulin and penicillin, have and active immunization, supportive therapy, maintain airway, no cure prevented- tetanus toxoid, vaccine
what is gamaglobulin? already made antibodies that attach to toxin
what causes botulism? gram +, bacteria clostridium botulinum, rod shaped, anaerobic
what are the types of botulism? foodborne, wound, infant, adult, latrogenic
what are the symptoms of botulism? double/blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, muslce weakness in infants: lethargic, feed poorly, constipation, weak cry, poor muscle tone the muscle relax and you can die due to the relaxation of the diaphragm
how is botulism diagnosed? medical history, physical exam, brain scan, spinal fluid, nerve conduction test, tensilon test for myasthenia gravis, test for toxin
how is botulism treated? breathing machine, antitoxins, removal of contaminated food (induced vomiting or enema), treat wounds, therapy
how is botulism prevented? follow hygiene procedures for home canning, refrigerate foods, boil home processed low acid tomato canned foods, seek medical help for infected wounds, dont let babies eat honey
what causes gas gangrene? anaerobic bacteria, clostridium perfringens, group a strep, staph aureus, vibrio vulnificus the disease affects muscular system, tissues, cells and blood vessels other types of gangrene: wet, dry, internal, fourneirs (genital), meleneys (skin lesions)
how is gas gangrene transmitted? trauma site, surgical wound depleted of blood supply, blood vessel disease, diabetes, colon cancer
what are the symptoms of gas gangrene? air under skin, blisters, increased heart rate, fever, pain around skin injury, sweating, pale skin color later turns dark red or purple, smell at infected area
how is gas gangrene treated and diagnosed? treated- surgery, amputation, iv antibiotics, hyperbaric chambers diagnosed- physical exam, test: tissue, fluid and blood culture, gram stain bacteria, xray, ct scan, mri if untreated: coma, death, sepsis
how is gas gangrene prevented? clean skin injury, watch for infection signs
what causes listeria? bacteria listeria monocytogenes
how is listeria transmitted? consuming contaminated foods such as: uncooked meat, unpasteurized milk, cheeses, processed meats, seafood
what are the symptoms of listeria? fever, muscle aches, diarrhea, headache, confusion, loss of balance can cause meningitis
what are the risk factors of listeria? pregnant women, newborn, adults 65 and older, people with weakened immune system
how is listeria diagnosed? isolate bacteria by: blood or spinal fluid sample, amniotic fluid
how is listeria treated? typically do not need treatment but antibiotics can be used
how is listeria prevented? wash hands, clean kitchen, cook meat, store food safely, choose safer foods
What are some acute viral infections? rapid onset of disease, short period of symptoms, quick recovery ex: influenza
pathogens disease causing organism
etiology origin or cause of disease
infection invasions or colonization of the body by pathogenic organisms
disease an abnormal state of health, body functions are compromised
opportunistic pathogens microorganism that under the proper circumstances can colonize the host and cause disease
what are some nosicomial infections? MRSA, rsv, c diff.
Viruses vs. Baceria viruses have intracellular parasites, pass through bacteriological filters, and are sensitive to interferon where bacteria are not only bacteria have a plasma membrane, binary vision, both rna and dna, atp, ribosomes, and are sensitive to antibiotis
what causes mononucleosis? epstein barr virus
how is mono spread? saliva
what are symptoms of mono? fever, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, swollen spleen (no sports in case of rupture)
how is mono diagnosed and treated? diagnosed- blood test treated- treat symptoms, usually better in 2-4 weeks
C. Diff caused by clostridium difficile, anaerobic bacteria months of diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping constantly, dehydration, malnutrition antibiotics can work, fecal transplant
H. Influenzae bacteria thought to cause the flu, actually causes meningitis, antibiotics do not work well, vaccine was created
bacterial conjunctivitis pink eye, caused by different bacteria and some are not treated easily, there is no immune system in the eye making it harder to fight off, antibiotic eye drops work sometimes, clogs the tear ducts
what causes rotavirus? virus rotavirus, wheel like appearance, non enveloped, double shelled affects gi tract, extremely common in infants
what are symptoms of rotavirus? dehydration, vomiting, severe, watery diarrhea, black, tarry, bloody stool
how is rotavirus diagnosed and transmitted? diagnosed- physical exam, stool sample transmitted- fecal-oral route, can spread before and after symptoms are present, most likely spreads in winter and spring
how is rotavirus treated? treated- not specific, focuses on rehydrating the patient, pedialyte vaccine- oral rotateq given in 3 doses first 6mnths or rotarix given in 2 doses the first 4months life, first dose most effective vefore 15 weeks
how is rotavirus prevented? proper hand hygiene, washing toys
recent epidemics measles- 2008, 2011 mumps- 2009 pertussis- 2010
vaccine safety issues egg and gelatin allergy swine flu vaccine can cause ascending paralysis
Created by: Tori Merrick