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Honors Bio H.W #3

Acid a substance that releases hydrogen ions when it is dissolved in water
Acidic when the concentration of the H^+ exceeds the concentration of the OH^-
Antioxidant molecules that react with free radicals and render them harmless]
Atom the fundamental structural units of matter
Atomic nucleus the central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons
Atomic number The number of protons in the nuclei of all atoms of a particular element
Base a substance that combines with hydrogen ions, reducing their number
Basic when the concentration of OH^- is greater than the concentration of H^+
Buffer a compound that minimizes changes in pH by reversibly taking up or releasing H+ ions
Calorie a unit of energy, in which the energy content of foods is measured; the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius; also called a kilocalorie, equal to 1000 calories
Chemical Bond the force of attraction between neighboring atoms that holds them together in a molecule
Chemical Reaction the process that forms and breaks chemical bonds that hold atoms together
Cohesion the tendency of the molecules of a substance to stick together
Compound a substance whose molecules are formed by different types of atoms; can be broken into its constituent elements by chemical means
Covalent Bond a chemical bond between atoms in which electrons are shared
Electron a subatomic particle, found in an electron shell outside the nucleus of an atom, that bears a unit of negative charge and very little mass
Electronic Shell a region within which electrons orbit that corresponds to a fixed energy level at a given distance
Element a substance that cannot be broken down, or converted, to a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means. The four most common elements are Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), and Carbon (C)
Free Radical a molecule with an unpaired electron, which makes it highly unstable and reactive with nearby molecules. By stealing an electron from the molecule it attacks, it creates a new free radical and begins a chain reactions that can lead to the destruction of b
Hydrogen Bond the weak attraction between a hydrogen atom that bears a partial positive charge (due to polar covalent bonding with another atom) and another atom, normally oxygen or nitrogen, that bears a partial negative charge; hydrogen bonds may form between atoms o
Hydrophilic pertaining to a substance that dissolves readily in water or to parts of a large molecule that form hydrogen bonds with water. One example of a hydrophilic substance is soap, which easily dissolves in water
Hydrophobic pertaining to a substance that does not dissolve in water. One example of a hydrophobic substance is oil, which does not mix with water when it is poured into water.
Hydrophobic Interaction the tendency for hydrophobic molecules to cluster together when immersed in water
Ion a charged atom or molecule; an atom or molecule that has either an excess of electrons (and hence is negatively charged) or has lost electrons (and is positively charged)
Ionic Bond a chemical bond formed by the electrical attraction between positively and negatively charged ions
Isotope one of several forms of a single element, the nuclei of which contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Molecule a particle composed of one or more atoms held together by chemical bonds; the smallest particle of a compound that displays all the properties of that compound
Neutron a subatomic particle that is found in the nuclei of atoms, bears no charge, and has a mass approximately equal to that of a proton.
Nonpolar covalent bond a covalent bond with equal sharing of electrons.
pH scale a scale with values from 0 to 14, used for measuring the relative acidity of a a solution.
Proton a subatomic particle that is found in the nuclei of atoms, bears a unit of positive charge, and has a relatively large mass, roughly equal to the mass of the neutron.
Radioactive pertaining to an atom with an unstable nucleus that spontaneously disintegrates, with the emission of radiation.
Polar covalent bond a covalent bond with unequal sharing of electrons, such that the one atom is relatively negative and the other is relatively positive.
Solvent able to dissolve other substances. For example, if there is someone is making lemonade from a lemonade mix, the water is the solvent because it dissolves the lemonade mix.
Surface tension the property of a liquid to resist penetration by objects at its interface with the air, due to cohesion between molecules of liquid.
Created by: maddieereynolds



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