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A&P Chapter 12:1

QuestionAnswer
What does axonal transport do? Why do many proteins involved return back to cell body? Moves material in the neuron, recycling back into cell body
What is movement away from a cell body called? Anterograde
What is movement toward a cell body called? Retrograde
What is fast axonal transport a result of? Movement along microtubules
Materials from anterograde movement are required for what? Synapse
What might materials that move in retrograde be classified as? Harmful materials
Does slow axonal transport require ATP? No
What kind of movement does slow axonal transport do? Moves down (anterograde)
What is slow axonal transport important for? Developing and Regenerating neurons
What is a multipolar neuron? Multiple dendrites and one axon
What is a bipolar neuron? One dendrite and one axon
What is a unipolar neuron? What does it emerge from? Multiple dendrites and one fused axon, emerges as a "T" from cell body
What does "-glia" mean? "Glue"
What is the size of neuroglia in relation to neurons? Smaller than neurons, more abundant in number
Are neuroglia capable of mitosis? Yes
Do neuroglia transmit nerve signals? What do they do instead? No, they assist in the functions
Where are neuroglia found? CNS and PNS
What is the most abundant CNS neuroglia? Astrocytes
What do astrocytes look like? Big cell with multiple branches
What do astrocytes touch? Capillary walls and neurons
What do astrocytes help form? What do they form it with? Blood brain barrier, Formed with perivascular feet
What do astrocytes secrete? This helps promote ________ growth & _________ formation. Secrete nerve growth factors, Neuron, Synapse
What do astrocytes form? Structural network
What do astrocytes regulate? Fluid tissue composition
What do astrocytes regulate the chemical composition of? Where? Interstitial fluid, In the brain
What do astrocytes convert blood glucose to? What do they supply it to? Lactate, supply to neurons for nourishment
What do astrocytes occupy? Occupy space of dying neurons
When neurons are damaged, what do they do? Fill space by astrocyte mitosis
What is this process called? (2 answers) Astrocytosis and Sclerosis
What do ependymal cells look like? Do they have roots? What do they lack? Simple Cuboidal with Cilia, Yes they have roots but lack a basement membrane
What do ependymal cells line? (2 answers) Ventricles of brain and Central Canal of spinal cord
What do ependymal cells produce? Cerebral Spinal Fluid
What do ependymal cells and nearby blood capillaries produce? Choroid Plexus
What do the cilia of ependymal cells help do?
What do microglial cells look like?
What kind of cells are microglial cells?
Microglial cells are what kind of cells of the immune system?
Do microglial cells move? How/Where?
What do microglial cells replicate in response to?
What do oligodendrocytes look like?
Where does each extension go? What do they wrap around?
What is this wrapping called?
What does the myelin sheath help prevent?
What does the myelin sheath protect the nerve from?
One Oligodendrocyte wraps around many __________.
How are satellite cells shaped?
What do satellite cells go around (in what?)
What do satellite cells provide?
What do satellite cells separate?
How are schwann cells shaped?
What might schwann cells wrap around repeatedly? What does this form?
What can schwann cells assist in?
Are myelin sheaths insulating or non- insulating?
What does the myelin sheath surround?
The myelin sheath consists of repeating ___________ layers of __________ membrane of _________ cells.
The myelin sheath consists of what percentage of proteins? Lipids?
What is myelination?
What is myelination in the CNS called?
What is myelination in the PNS called?
When does myelination begin?
Is there a large or small amount of myelin in the brain at birth?
When is myelination complete?
What is a nutritional need for myelination to occur?
In PNS myelination, what do schwann cell encircle?
What does the cell do as it continues to wrap around the axon?
What is external to the neurilemma?
What are the gaps between the cells called?
In CNS myelination, what do oligodendrocytes myelinate?
What wraps repeatedly around portions of axons?
Is a neurilemma formed?
Is an endoneurium formed?
Are nodes of Ranvier created in the CNS?
Are unmyelinated axons associated with schwann cells?
Does a myelin sheath cover them?
Where does the axon rest?
Are unmyelinated axons in the CNS associated with oligodendrocytes?
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) involves progressive demyelination of what?
MS involves the destruction of what?
What kind of disorder is MS?
With MS, what do antibodies attack?
What is disrupted with MS? What becomes impaired?
Created by: 339730466385696