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Skin- Infections

Bacterial Infection Usually start at the hair follicle, where bacteria easily collect and grow in the warm, moist environment
Folliculitis A superficial infection involving only the upper portion of the follicle and is usually caused by Staphylococcus
Furuncles Boils- occur in areas of heat and moisture, such as in the hair-bearing skin-fold areas
Cellulitis Generalized infection with either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus and involves the deeper connective tissue
Spread of Infection May be spreaded by the scratching or rubbing the skin with fingernails that have organisms under them
Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) Most common viral infection of adult skin
Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) 1 Cause the recurring cold sores
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 2 Recurrent genital herpes
Recurrence of HSV in Healthy People Triggered by physical or psychologicl stressors, such as sunburn, trauma, fever, menses, and fatigue; Tingling or burning of the lip before any lesion is evident
Herpetic Whitlow A form of herpes simplex infection occurring on the fingertips of medical personnel who have come in contact with viral secretions
Herpes Zoster(Shingles) Caused by reactivation of the dormant varicella-zoster virus in clients who have previously had chickenpox; Disease of immunosuppression; Complicationss include full-thickness skin necrosis, Bell's palsy, or eye infection if introduce into the eye
Fungal Infections Superficial fungal (dermatophyte) can differ in lesion appearance, anatomic location, and species of the infecting organism
Tinea (Dermatophtoses) 1.Tinea pedis=Feet(Athlete's foot)2.Tinea manus=Hands3.Tinea cruris=Groin(Jock Itch)4.Tinea corporis=Ringworm5.Tinea capitis=Scalp6.Tinea barbae=Beard
Inanimate Objects Tinea capitis and tinea corporis can be transmitted by means of inanimate objects
Tinea capitis Spread by sharing of contaminated combs, brushes, hats, pillowcases, and similar objects from people with poor hygiene
Skin Care Instruct clients with bacterial infections to bathe daily with an antibacterial soap; apply warm compresses twice a day to furuncles or areas of cellulitis to increase comfort; Avoid constricting garments that might rub the lesions and increase irritation
Burow's Solution(Astringent Compresses) Apply to viral lesions for 20 minutes three times a day promotes crust formation and healing
Drug Therapy Acyclovir(Zovirax) or Penciclovir(Denavir) used for the treatment of viral infections
Pediculosis(Parasitic Disorders) Infestation by human lice: pediculosis capitis(head lice), pediculosis corporis(body lice), and pediculosis pubis(pubic, or crab, lice)
Pediculosis Capitis Occur more commonly in women than in men, espeically on the sides and back of the scalp; A secondary infection may also be present from scratching
Pediculosis Corporis Caused by lice that live and lays eggs in the seams of clothing
Pediculosis Pubis Causes intense itching of the vulvar or perirectal region
Interventions Lindane or topical malathion; Clothing and bed linens should be washed in hot water or drycleaned; use of fine-toothed comb can help remove nits from an infested scalp
Scabies A contagious skin disease caused by mite infestations; transmitted by close and prolonged contact with an infested companion or infested bedding; unbearable itching at night
Contact dermatitis An acute or chronic rash caused by either direct contact with an irritant substance, resulting in toxic injury to the skin, or by contact with an allergen, resulting in a cell-mediated immune reaction
Atopic Dermatitis A chronic rash that occurs with respiratory allergies and atopic skin disease; made worse by factors that include dry or irritated skin, food allergies, chemicals, or stress
Steroids Corticosteroids NEVER cure
Oil-based products Avoid applying oil-based ointments and pastes to the sweaty skin fold areas because maceration and blocking of pores may results in folliculitis
Antihistamines Provide some relief of itching; Sedative effects of antihistamines can be reduced if the client takes most of the daily dose near bedtime
Compresses and baths Cool, moist compresses and lukewarm baths with bath additives have a soothing effect, decrease inflammation, and help to debride crusts and scales
Psoriasis A scaling disorder with underlying dermal inflammation; abnormality in the growth of the epidermal cells in the outer skin layers; improve in warmer climates, where there is more exposure to sunlight
Psoriasis Vulgaris Most common type of psoriasis and presents as thick reddened papules or plaques covered by silvery white scales; less red and more moist in skin folds areas because of sweat-induced maceration; same areas on both sides of the body
Exfoliative Psoriasis An explosively eruptive and inflammatory form of the disease with generalized erythema and scaling that do not form obvious lesions
Tar Preparations Suppresses cell division and reduces inflammation
Ultraviolet Light Therapy The use of commercial tanning bed is not recommended for the client with psoriasis
Created by: keisha12_18
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