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Nervous System

12.2 Nervous Tissue - Neurons

What is the primary tissue of the nervous system? Nervous tissue
What are the two distinct cell types in nervous tissue? Neurons and glial cells
What are neurons? Excitable cells that initiate and transmit electrical signals
What are glial cells? Non excitable cells that support and protect neurons
What are the characteristics of a neuron? Excitability, conductivity, secretion, extreme longevity, and amitotic
What is excitability? A response to stimulus ( chemical, stretch, pressure change)
What is conductivity? an electrical change that is quickly produced along the plasma membrane as voltage- gated channels open
What is secretion? When neurons release neurotransmitters in response to a conductive activity
What is extreme longevity? Neurons formed during fetal development but are still functional in elderly individuals
What is amitotic? mitotic activity that is lost in most neurons
What is a cell body? Serve as neurons control center
What is perikaryon? cytoplasm within cell body
What is chromatophilic substance? Free and bound ribosomes that are stained dark by dyes
What are dendrites? short, small, tapering, unmyelinated processes that branch off the cell body
What do dendrites do? Receive input then transfer it to cell body for processing- greater the number of dendrites the more input a neuron will receive
What is a axon? a longer process emanating from the cell body to make contact with other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells
What is a axon hillock? triangular region of the cell body that extends from the axon
What is axoplasm? cytoplasm within the axon
What is the axolemma? Plasma membrane of the axon
What is the axon collaterals? Side branches of the axon
What are telodendria? fine terminal extensions
What are synaptic knobs? extreme tips of the telodendria
What are synaptic vesicles? within the snaptic knobs, containing nerotransmitters
What is a cyoskeleton? a neuron composed of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
What is anterograde transport? the movement of materials from cell body to synaptic knob
What is retrograde transport? the movement of materials from synaptic knob to cell body
What is fast axonal transport? 400 millimeters per day
What is slow axonal transport? 0.1 to 3 millimeters per day
What are multipolar neurons? Most common type, have many dendrites and single axon
What are bipolar neurons? Have two processes that extend from cell body, one dendrite and one axon
What are unipolar neurons? Have single, short neuron process that emerges from the cell body and branches like a T
What are anaxonic neurons? only have dendrite and no axon
What are the three classifications of neurons? Sensory, motor, interneurons
What are sensory neurons? Neurons of sensory nervous system, responsible for conducting sensory input from both somatic & visceral sensory receptors
What are motor neurons? Neurons of motor nervous system, conducting motor output from CNS to both somatic & visceral effectors
What are interneurons? Lie entirely within CNS. Receive stimulation from many other neurons and carry out the integrative function of the nervous system.
Created by: rpill