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Earth Environmental Science - Dobbins

Out of geology, astronomy, oceanography & astrology, which is NOT one of the main areas of Earth Science? astrology
What is the study of the atmosphere and the processes that produce weather and climate? meteorology
How were the inner planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars - formed? repeated collisions of asteroid-sized debris
According to nebular hypothesis, our solar system is formed from a huge rotating cloud made of what? helium & hydrogen
What are the outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune - made up of? water, carbon dioxide, ammonia & methane
What are earth's four spheres? hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere & biosphere
Define, lithosphere. the crust and uppermost mantle that makes up the rigid outer layer of Earth
What is the driving force for the movement of the lithospheric plates? unequal distribution of heat within Earth
Define, latitude. the distance, measured in degrees, north and south of the equator
On a global grid, where is the prime meridian located? 0 degrees longitude
How could two points 35 degrees north of the equator - one in North America and the other in China - be distinguished using map coordinates? by their longitude
What type of map best shows differences in elevation? topographic maps
What does a Mercator projection map show? accurate directions, but has distorted sizes and distances
Because there is only a small amount of distortion over a local area, what type of map is used for road maps? Mercator projection map
What do contour lines that form a circle indicate on a topographic map? a hill
Define, system. any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole
What are the two sources of energy for the Earth system? the sun and Earth's interior
What process is driven by the sun's energy? weather and ocean circulation
What is powered by the energy from Earth's interior? a volcano
Of the following, air pollution, flooding, hurricane, & earthquakes, which is an environmental hazard created by humans? air pollution
Of the following, air pollution, water pollution, mountain building, & deforestation, which is NOT caused by human interactions? mountain building
How could the building of a dam affect the Earth's system? a dam could cause the flooding of a nearby forest, it could destroy a fish species that needs swiftly moving water and it could block the migration of spawning fish
What is coal an example of? a non-renewable resource
What is the energy from flowing water and example of? a renewable resource
Of the following, natural gas, solar energy, copper & oil, which is NOT an example of a nonrenewable resource? solar energy
Of the following, cotton, lumber, chicken & iron, which is NOT an example of a renewable resource? iron
How can a scientific hypothesis become a theory? if the hypothesis is tested extensively and competing hypotheses are eliminated
Define, scientific hypothesis. a preliminary untested explanation that tries to explain how or why things happen in the manner observed
What may a hypothesis be elevated to in a scientific inquiry when competing hypotheses have been eliminated? a theory
Of the following, carbon, silicon, oxygen & aluminum, which is NOT one of the eight most common elements in Earth's continental crust? carbon
What is the most abundant element in Earth's continental crust by weight? oxygen
What are the building blocks of minerals? elements
What is the central region of an atom called? nucleus
Define, atom. the smallest particle of an element that still retains all the element's properties
If the atomic number of an element is 6 and its mass number is 14, how many neutrons are contained in the nucleus? 8
Define, ion. an atom that loses or gains electrons
Define, isotopes. atoms containing the same number of protons and different number of neutrons
How do isotopes of the same element differ? in the number of neutrons
How is the mass number of an atom obtained? by totaling the number of protons & neutrons
Define, compound. when two or more elements bond together in definite proportions
What subatomic particles are most involved in chemical bonding? valence electrons
What are the main types of chemical bonds? ionic, covalent & metallic
What type of chemical bond forms between positive and negative ions? ionic
What do compounds with high melting points have? ionic bonds
Who made the first accurate measurement of the size of Earth? Eratosthenes
What did Aristotle conclude? the Earth was round because is always casts a curved shadow during a lunar eclipse
What did the geocentric model of the universe state? Earth was the center of the universe
What did the Ptolemaic model of the universe state? Earth was the center of the universe
Define, mass. a measure of the total amount of matter an object contains
Using Tycho Brahe's data, what scientist proposed three laws of planetary motion? Kepler
Who was the first early astronomer to propose a sun-centered solar system? Copernicus
Define, weight. the force that gravity exerts on an object
What is the shape of a planet's orbit? elliptical
What law states that each planet revolves so that an imaginary line connecting it to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal time intervals? the second law of planetary motion
What scientist was the first to use the telescope in astronomy? Galileo
What scientist determined the nature of the forces that keep the planets in their orbits? Newton
Who discovered the true shape of planetary orbits? Kepler
According to the third law of planetary motion, what is the period of revolution of a planet related to? the planet's distance to the sun
What is the movement known as precession? Earth's axis slowly but continuously points in different directions
What movement of Earth is responsible for night and day? rotation
What causes seasons? Earth's tilted axis
What is the moon's period of rotation if the period of revolution is 27-1/3 days? 27-1/3 days
How long does it take the moon to go from full-moon phase to new-moon phase? two weeks
What occurs when the moon casts it shadow on Earth? solar eclipse
What must happen for a solar eclipse occur? the moon's orbit must cross the plane of the ecliptic
Of the following, total solar eclipse, total lunar eclipse, partial lunar eclipse & a full moon, what are we most likely to experience? full moon
What statement best explains why the moon has more craters than Earth? weathering and erosion do not occur on the moon
Of the following planets, Venus, Mars, Uranus and Pluto, which is known to have rings? Uranus
Of the following planets, Earth, Saturn, Neptune & Uranus, which is NOT a Jovian planet? Earth
Of the following planets, Mercury, Earth, Mars & Jupiter, which is NOT a terrestrial planet? Jupiter
What is the most obvious difference between terrestrial and the Jovian planets? size
Define, nebular theory. the formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of dust and gases
Of the following, terrestrial planets, Jovian planets, galaxies and the sun, which is NOT part of the solar system? galaxies
Of the following, Mars, Venus, Jupiter & Mercury, which shows evidence of water erosion? Mars
Of the following, Mercury, Venus, Mars & Saturn, which has a cratered surface similar to Earth's moon? Mercury
What terrestrial planet has the greatest temperature extremes? Mercury
Which planet has a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and high surface temperatures? Venus
What planet is second only to the moon in brilliance in the night sky? Venus
What planet has a greater mass than the combined mass of all the remaining planets and their moons? Jupiter
What is Jupiter's Great Red Spot believed to be? a cyclonic storm
What are the layers of the Earth? the crust, the upper mantle, the lower mantle, the outer core and the inner core
Where is the inner core? it is in the center of the Earth
Where is the outer core? the outer is located around the inner core and below the lower mantle of the Earth
Where is the lower mantle? it is located between the outer core and the upper mantle of the Earth
Where is the upper mantle? it is located above the lower mantle and below the crust of the Earth
Where is the crust? it is the outside layer of the Earth
What does a meter describe? length
What does a liter describe? volume
What does a kilogram or Kg describe? weight
What does a second describe? time
What does a candela describe? light
What does Kelvin describe? temperature
What does an ampere describe? voltage
What does a mole describe? concentration
Created by: ndmsteach