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Chater 5


passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
equilibrium a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell.
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell.
isotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell.
contractile vacuole in protists, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure.
turgor pressure the pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell.
plasmolysis the contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution I response to the loss of water by osmosis.
cytolysis the bursting of a cell
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins.
carrier protein a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane.
ion channel a complex of proteins molecules in a cell membrane that forms a pore through which ions can pass.
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy.
sodium-potassium pump a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions into the cell.
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
phagocytosis the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food.
phagocyte a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter or microorganisms.
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substances to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out.
Created by: FarlowA20