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Biology Chap.5.1-5.2

Basic terms for Honors Biology, Grade 9

Certain substances can pass through a cell membrane without any input of energy wasted by the cell through a process called- Passive Transport
The simplest form of passive transport where the movement of molecules move from a place of high to lower concentration Diffusion
The difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance is called Concentration Gradient
When the concentration of molecules is the same throughout the space the molecules occupy Equilibrium
The process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to a lower concentration Osmosis
When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration in the cytosol, the outside solution is ___________to the cytosol Hypotonic
When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol, the outside solution is __________ to the cytosol Hypertonic
When the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal, the outside solution is ___________ to the cytosol Isotonic
Organelles that remove water by collecting excess water and then contracting, pumping water out of the cell Contractile Vacuole
The pressure that the water molecules exert against the cell wall when being removed is called Turgor Pressure
When, in a hypertonic environment, water leaving the cells through osmosis loses the turgor pressure and the cells shrink away from the cell walls and is the reason why plant wilt without enough water Plasmolysis
When a cell swells and then bursts due to the amount of water it contains Cytolysis
A type of passive transport where molecules who have difficulty passing through the cell membrane even though there is a concentration gradient because they are not soluble or too large are assisted by proteins to get across the membrane Facilitated Diffusion
The proteins that assist in facilitated diffusion Carrier Protein
Membrane proteins that transport ions from higher to lower concentrations in another form of passive transport Ion Channel
When cells must move materials from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration or "up" the concentration gradient Active Transport
A carrier protein active transport that transports Na+ ions outside the cell and brings K+ ions inside the cell and helps maintain the balance of each Sodium-potassium Pump
The process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles, like other cells Endocytosis
When the cell membrane folds around food or liquid and forms a small pouch which pinches off from the cell membrane to become a Vesicle
One of the two main types of endocytosis where solutes or fluids are taken in Pinocytosis
One of the two main types of endocytosis where large particles or whole cells are taken in Phagocytosis
Cells that ingest bacteria and viruses that invade the body and use their lysosomes to fuse with the vesicles and destroy the harmful materials before they can hurt the animal Phagocyte
The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out of the cell Exocytosis
Created by: EmilyEdwards