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Chapter 5

Biology

TermDefinition
passive transport the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
equilibrium a state that exists when the concentration of a substance is the same throughout a space
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside the cell
isotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
contractile vacuole in protists, an organelle that accumulates water and then releases it periodically to maintain osmotic pressure
turgor pressure the pressure that is exerted in the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cells
plasmolysis the concentration or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water by osmosis
cytolysis the soluble portion of the cytoplasm, which includes molecules and small particles, such as ribosomes, but not the organelles covered with membranes
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
carrier protein a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
ion channel a complex of protein molecules in a cell membrane that form a pore through which ions can pass
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
sodium-potassium pump a carrier protein that uses ATP to actively transport sodium ions out of a cell and potassium ions in to the cell
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cells; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
pinocytosis a method of active transport across the cell membrane in which the cell takes in extracellular fluids
phagocytosis the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells , either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
phagocyte a cell that ingests and destroys (digest) foreign matter or microorganisms
exocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Created by: devolvej