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cells

biology

TermDefinition
cell theroy the theory that states that all living things are made up of cells, that cells are the basic units of organisms, that each cell in a multicellular organism has a specific job, and that cells come only from existing cells
cytoplasm he region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
prokaryotic cell a cell that does not have a nucleus or cell organelles; an example is a bacterial cell
eukaryotic cell a cell that has a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, multiple chromosomes, and a mitotic cycle
cytoskeleton nucleus
nuclus n a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
endoplamic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
ribosome a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
golgi apparatus
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
vacule a fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protozoans
lysosome a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
centride
cell wall a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
cell membrain a phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment
phospholidid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
fluid mosaic model
seletive permeablilty
recetpor a specialized sensory nerve that responds to specific types of stimuli
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concetration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
istonic
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hyportonic
facilitated diffition the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active tranport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
phagocytosis the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
exocytosos the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Created by: tony1221