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Bacteria and Viruses

TermDefinition
Conjugation Form of reproduction used by some prokaryotes in which the prokaryotic cell attach to each other and exchange genetic material.
Capsid Outer protein layer that surrounds the genetic material of a virus.
Nucleoid Area in a prokaryotic cell that contains a large, circular chromosome.
Virus Nonliving strand of genetic material that cannot replicate on its own, has a nucleic acid core, a protein coat, and can invade cells and alter cellular function.
Endospore Dormant bacterial cell able to survive for long periods of time during extreme environmental conditions
Prion Protein that can cause infection or disease.
Lytic Cycle Viral replication process in which the virus destroys the host cell.
Binary Fission Asexual form of reproduction used by some prokaryotes in which a cell divides into two genetically identical cells.
Lysogenic Cycle Viral replication process in which the virus does NOT destroy the host cell.
Retrovirus RNA virus, such as HIV, with reverse transcriptase in its core.
Pilus Hair-like, submicroscopic structure made of protein that can help a bacterial cell attach to environmental surfaces and act as a bridge between cells.
1. They are not cellular 2. They cannot make proteins. 3. They cannot use energy. 4. They cannot reproduce independently. How do we know viruses are NOT alive?
Because they are active inside living cells. If viruses are not alive then why are they apart of biology which is the study of life?
A protein coat and a nucleic acid core. What does a typical virus consists of?
Through endocytosis across the cell membrane. How does an animal virus enter its host cell?
They differ in their response to different antibiotics. Why is it important to distinguish between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?
They contain a single, circular chromosome. How would you describe the chromosome of a bacterial cell?
Membrane bound organelles. What do bacterial cells NOT have the eukaryotic cells DO?
A cell wall and a cell membrane. What two structures surround a bacterial cell?
A cell wall and a cell membrane. How do we classify bacteria?
By their methods of obtaining energy. How do we classify bacteria?
Pathogen An organism that causes disease in another living organism.
Archaebacteria Domain that contains prokaryotes that thrive in harsh environments where nothing else can live.
Eubacteria Domain that contains the bacteria we are most familiar with.
Coccus The name that refers to round or spherical bacteria.
Bacillus The name that refers to rod shaped bacteria.
Spirillum The name that refers to spiral shaped bacteria.
Germ Theory The theory that states microorganisms are the cause of many diseases.
Binary Fission The process by which bacteria multiply in numbers.
Conjugation The process by which bacteria increase genetic diversity. (swap DNA)
Antibiotics The medications used to treat bacterial infections.
Created by: jphokie05