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YR ch 19 cardiovas

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIO 106 UCC

QuestionAnswer
What is Tunica Intima? AKA endothelium; layer of simple squamous epithelium; allows for smooth and frictionless flow of blood.
What is Tunica Media? Helps adjust blood pressure because of the smooth muscle; regulated by autonomic nerves.
What is Tunica (Externa) Adventitia? Tough supportive layer of connective tissue that anchors blood vessels to surrounding tissues. Infiltrated with nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels.
Vasoconstriction Arteries are capable of this. Decreases blood flow by decreasing the diameter of blood vessel.
Vasodilation Arteries are capable of this. Increases blood flow by increasing the diameter of a blood vessel.
Capillaries Have thin walls made of endothelium for diffusion. Blood vessel diameter is one-cell wide meaning RBC can enter one at a time. Allows deposit of nutrients and oxygen while picking up waste and other by-products.
Blood flow through capillaries are regulated by? Precapillary sphincters( faucets) which constricts or dilate them.
How does blood move through veins? 1. Valves prevent back flow. 2. Contraction of muscles. 3. Breathing
What is the aorta? Largest artery in the body.
What are the 3 parts of the aorta? 1. Ascending aorta 2. Aortic arch 3. Descending aorta
What branches off of the aortic arch? 1. Brachiocephalic (becomes right common carotid and right subclavian artery) 2. Left common carotid artery (blood to left side head/neck) 3. Left subclavian artery (blood to upper left limb)
What branches off the ascending aorta? Coronary artery ( blood to the heart)
What branches off the descending aorta? Thoracic aorta to the abdominal aorta to the common iliac
What is the Circle of Willis? AKA Cerebral arterial circle, group of blood vessels(mainly internal carotid arteries) that supply blood to the brain.
What are vertebral arteries? Branch off subclavian arteries. Runs through foramina of the cervical vertebrae and up to the foramen magnum. Unite to form basilar artery.
What are basilar arteries? Feed blood to the pons, cerebellum, midbrain.
The brain won't be able to maintain life without what? Vertebral arteries and common carotids.
What is the celiac trunk? Branch of abdominal aorta. Made up of common hepatic, splenic, left gastric arteries. Feeds blood to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, upper duodenum and liver.
What does the external iliac artery feed? Lower limbs.
What does the internal iliac artery feed? Pelvic area.
The external iliac artery becomes femoral artery which then becomes the popliteal artery which feeds? Lower limbs.
What collects blood from the head, neck, thorax, and upper limbs? Superior vena cava
What collects blood from the abdomen, pelvis, and lower limbs? Inferior vena cava
Veins of the head and neck External/internal jugular veins drain blood from head/neck into subclavian vein to (right/left) brachiocephalic vein to superior vena cava.
Veins of the thorax Azygos system
Veins of the abdomen Hepatic portal system drains nutrient rich blood from viscera to the inferior vena cava.
Veins of the lower limbs Great saphenous vein is taken from lower limb and used for coronary by-pass surgery.
What is blood pressure? Measure of the force that blood exerts against the walls of blood vessel. Systolic: maximum pressure exerted when ventricles contract (best example is left ventricle)
What is the relationship between blood pressure and resistance in blood vessels? If resistance goes up, blood pressure goes down.
What is stroke volume? Volume of blood ejected from the ventricles per beat.
What is vascular compliance? Elasticity of the vessel
What allows capillaries to exchange nutrients? Blood pressure, and osmosis
What is local control? Use of pre-capillary sphincters of capillaries. When they are relaxed: increase blood flow. When they are contracted: decrease blood flow.
What heart rate x stroke volume? Cardiac output.
What do baroreceptors do? Monitor blood pressure, located in neck and thorax arteries, sends action potentials to medulla oblongata.
What do chemoreceptors do? Sense changes in chemicals like 02, C02, pH. If 02 is low, it'll send signals to the vasomotor center/medulla oblongata.
What is congestive heart failure? Heart is not pumping right.
What is shock? Abnormal circulation of blood.
Created by: smwondr