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Cells

Biology

TermDefinition
Cell Theory The scientific theory describing cells and that all cells are produced only from pre-existing, living cells
Cytoplasm Consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a cell.
Organelle Compartment or structure in a cell that performs a special function.
Prokaryotic Cell An organism whose cell generally lacks a true nucleus
Eukaryotic Cell An organism that possesses a membrane-bound nucleus
Cytoskeleton The cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division
Nucleus The cell’s DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
Ribosome A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
Golgi Apparatus A cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
Vesicle A small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
Mitochondrion
Vacuole A fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protozoans
Lysosome A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
Centriole An organelle that is active during mitosis
Cell Wall A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
Chloroplast An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Cell Membrane A phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment
Phospholipid A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
Fluid Mosaic Model
Selective Permeability
Receptor A specialized sensory nerve that responds to specific types of stimuli
Passive Transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
Diffusion The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
Concentration Gradient A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
Osmosis The diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
Isotonic
Hypertonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
Hypotonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
Facilitated Diffusion The transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
Active Transport The movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
Endocytosis The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
Exocytosis The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Created by: D3rPcIttY12
 

 



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