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Cells

Biology

TermDefinition
Cell Theory A theory in biology that states that the cell is the fundamental structure of all living beings, only produced by living cells, and the basic units of life.
Cytoplasm The substance surrounding the whole cell containing the organelles.
Organelle Any of a number of organized structures within a cell.
Prokaryotic Cell Only found in one celled organisms, they do not have a nucleus, but only one chromosome.
Eukaryotic Cell Found in organisms with more than one cell, they do have a nucleus.
Cytoskeleton The cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division.
Nucleus In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell’s DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
Ribosome A cell organelle composed of RNA and protein.
Golgi Apparatus A cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell.
Vesicle A small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell.
Mitochondrion In eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP.
Vacuole A fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protozoans.
Lysosome A cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes.
Centriole An organelle that is active during mitosis.
Cell Wall A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.
Chloroplast An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs.
Cell Membrane A phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment.
Phospholipid A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
Fluid Mosaic Model .
Selective Permeability .
Receptor A specialized sensory nerve that responds to specific types of stimuli.
Passive Transport The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
Diffusion The movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density.
Concentration Gradient A difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance.
Osmosis The diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.
Isotonic A solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell.
Hypertonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell.
Hypotonic Describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell.
Facilitated Diffusion The transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins.
Active Transport The movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy.
Endocytosis The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
Phagocytosis The process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food.
Exocytosis The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out.
Created by: ohyeahboi