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Cells

Biology

TermDefinition
cell theory the theory that states that all organisms are made of cell. all cells are produced by other living cells , and the cell is the most basic unit of life
cytoplasm the cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing various particles.
organelle a specialized part of a cell having some specific function; a cell organ.
prokaryotic cell a cell lacking a nucleus
eukaryotic cell cells that have a nucleus
cytoskeleton the cytoplasmic network of protein filaments that plays an essential role in cell movement, shape, and division
nucles in physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons
edndoplasmic recticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
ribosome a type of RNA that can act as an enzyme
goligi apparatus a cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell; forms when part of the cell membrane surrounds the materials to be taken into the cell or transported within the cell
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two membranes and that is the site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP
vacuole a fluid-filled vesicle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells or protozoans
lysosome a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
centriole an organelle that is active during mitosis
cell wall a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
chloroplast an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
cell membrane a phospholipid layer that covers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell’s environment
phospholipid a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
fluid mosaic model
selective permeability
receptor a specialized sensory nerve that responds to specific types of stimuli
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
concentration gradient a difference in the concentration of a substance across a distance
osmosis the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent
isotonic
hypertonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is higher than the solute concentration inside a cell
hypotonic describes a solution whose solute concentration is lower than the solute concentration inside a cell
facilitated diffusion the transport of substances through a cell membrane along a concentration gradient with the aid of carrier proteins
active transport the movement of chemical substances, usually across the cell membrane, against a concentration gradient; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
phagocytosis the process by which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells, either as a defense mechanism or as a means to obtain food
excocytosis the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
Created by: Radilinn