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Electrocardiogram

NHA FINAL --- YTI

QuestionAnswer
What is the primary function of the heart? To pump blood to and from all the tissues of the body.
What is the anatomy of the heart? Location. It is a hollow muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs and just behind the sternum.
What are the 3 layers of the heart? Endocardium, Myocardium, & Epicardium.
Of the 3 layers of the heart, which is the thickest layer? Myocardium.
What is the Endocardium? The innermost layer of the heart. Forms the lining amd folds back onto intself to form the four valves. This is the layer that the conduction system is found.
What is the Myocardium? The middle and contractile layer of the heart. It is made up of striated muscle fibers interspersed with intercalated disks.
What is the Epicardium? The outermost layer of the heart. This is also the inner (visceral) layer of the pericardium.
What is the Pericardium? It is the sac in which the heart is contained. Consists of the outermost fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium which consists of the visceral and parietal layers.
Name the heart chambers of the heart? Right Atrium, Left Atrium, Right Ventricle, & Left Ventricle.
Purpose of the Right Atrium receives deoxygenated blood returning to the heart from the body via the superior vena cava which carries blood from the upper body and the inferior vena cava which carries blood from the lower body.
Purpose of the Right Ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium which it pumps to lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary artery(trunk) to the right and left pulmonary arteries.
Pulmonary Arteries are the only arteries in the body that carry deoxygenated blood.
Purpose of the Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood returning from lungs via the left and right pulmonary veins.
Pulmonary Veins are the only veins in the body that carry oxygenated blood.
Purpose of the Left Ventricle receives the oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the body through the aorta.
What is the largest artery of the body? Aorta
What kind of pump is the heart? A two-sided pump seperated by a septum.
What is the purpose of the heart valves? To prevent backflow of blood, creating a uni-directional flow through the heart.
What are the two atrioventricular valves & why are they called that? Tricuspid & Mitral Valve, & because they are located between the atria and ventricles.
Where is the tricuspid valve located? It is located between the right atrium & the right ventricle.
Where is the mitral valve located? And what is another name for this valve? It is located between the left atrium & the left ventricle. Also called the bicuspid valve.
What are the two seminlunar valves & why are they called that? Pulmonic & Aortic valve, & because they are half moon shaped cusps.
Where is the pulmonic valve located? located between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk.
Where is the aortic valve located? located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
What are the major vessels of the heart? The right & left coronary arteries, veins, aorta, and vena cava.
The heart is influenced by which body system? The (ANS) autonomic nervous system, which is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
What does the sympathetic nervous system affect? both the atria and the ventricles by increasing heart rate, conduction & irritability.
What does the parasympathetic nervous system affect? the atria only by decreasing the heart rate, conduction & irritability.
What is the pathway for blood through the heart? Superior/Inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary arteries, lung tissues, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicsupid valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta, & body
What are the properties of the cardiac cells (unique qualities of the heart)? Automaticity, Conductivity, Excitability, & Contractility.
Automaticity ability of the cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously initiate their own electrical impulses without being stimulated from another source.(SA node, AV junction, Purkinje Fibers)
Excitability ability to respond to external stimulus: electrical, checmical, and mechanical. This is shared by all cardiac cells. Also referred to as irritability.
Conductivity ability of the all cardiac cells to receive and electrical stimulus and transmit the stimulus to the other cardiac cells.
Contractility ability to of the cardiac cells to shorten and cause cardiac muscle contraction in response to an electrical stimulus. Can be enhanced by certain medication administration. Digitalis, Dopamine, epinephrine.
Depolarization State of cellular stimulation. Contraction. Positive deflection.
Repolarization State of cellular recovery. Relaxtion. Negative deflection.
What is the conduction pathway through the heart? SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, bundle branches (left & right), Purkinje Fibers.
What is considered the primary pacemaker of the heart? SA node, which has a normal firing rate of 60-100 bpm.
What is the secondary pacemaker of the heart? Bundle of His, with an intrinsic firing rate of 40-60bpm.
Wha is the name of the leads used on an ECG? 3 Limb leads(bipolar), 3 Augmented leads(unipolar), & 6 Chest leads(precordial).
What are your Limb leads? Lead I, II, IIILead I = LA(+) - RA(-)Lead II = LL(+) - RALead III = LL(+) - LA(-)
What are your Augmented leads? Lead aVR, aVL, aVFaVR = RA(+) & other limb leads are (-)aVL = LA(+) & other limb leads are (-)aVF = LL(+) & other limb leads are (-)
What are you Chest Leads? V1 - V6V1 - 4th ICS, right sternal borderV2 - 4th ICS, left sternal borderV3 - Equidistant btw. V2 & V4V4 - 5th ICS, left midclavicular lineV5 - 5th ICS, anterior axillary lineV6 - 5th ICS, midaxillary line
What are the 2 measurements on the ECG grid and what do they measure? Horizontal axis = represents time1mm = 0.04, 5mm = 0.2Vertical axis = represents amplitude0.1mV = 1mm
What is the normal running speed on a ECG? 25mm/sec.
Waveform refers to a movement away from the isoelectric line either upward(positive) or downware(negative) deflection.
Segment line between two waveforms
Interval waveform plus a segment
Complex several waveforms
What does the P wave represent? the first positive deflection by atrial depolarization.
What does the QRS complex represent? represnts ventricular depolarization (activation).
What does the Q wave represent? the inital negative deflection produced by ventricular depolarization.
What does the R wave represent? the first positive deflection produced ventricular depolarization.
What does the S wave represent? the first negavtive deflection produced by ventricular depolarization that follows the first positive deflection(R wave).
What are the two waves that represent ventricular repolarization? T & U wave
What does the T wave represent? the deflection produced by ventricular repolarization.
What does the U wave represnt? the deflection seen follwing the T wave but preceding the next P wave.
What method do you use to calculate a regular ventricular rhythm? the interval in seconds btw. 2 consecutive R-R waves divided by 60 seconds.
What method do you used to calculate a irregular ventricular rhythm? the number of R waves in a 6 second strip multiplied by 10.
What is the normal value for the PR interval? 0.12 - 0.20 seconds
What is the normal value for the QRS complex? 0.06 - 0.10 secondsShould be no more that 0.1 sec in the limb lead, and 0.11 sec in the precordial leads.
What is an artifact? an unwanted marking on the ECG tracing
What are some types of artifacts? somatic tremor, 60-cycle interference, & wandering baseline
Somatic Tremors involunatary movement of shaking, shivering, tremors that produce a jittery pattern on the tracing
Wandering Baseline Oil, lotion, sweat on the patients skin or tension on the wires can cause interference with the signal causing the baseline of the tracing to move up & down
60-cycle Interference caused by electrical appliances being used nearby while the tracing is taken, producing a mimic of atrial flutter.
What does Stylus mean? heat that is produced to provide the ECG tracing markings
What are the two types of stress testing? exercise stress test & pharmacologic stress test
What kind of procedure is a exercise stress test? Noninvasive
What kind of procedure is a pharmacologic stress test? Invasive
What are some reasons a stress test is done? Evaluation of chest pain on a pt. with a normal ECG, someone who has had an MI, and from the treatment & diagnosis of arrhythmias.
Reasons to stop a stress test? Pt. experiences chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, and blood pressure abnormalities.
Who would be an example for a pharmacologic stress test? Elderly, amputees, & those who can not exercise.
What is an ectopic rhythm? impulses that occur from somewhere else other than the sinus node
What is a conduction block? impulses that travel down the usual pathway but encounter blocks or delays
What is an arrhythmia? the electrical flow that follows the normal conduction pathway but is either too fast or too slow, or irregular.
Describe Myocardial Ischemia & how it's experienced. A decrease in the amount of blood flow to a section of the heart. Experienced as chest pain and discomfort; called angina.
Describe Myocardial Infarction Actual death of the myocardial cells. Heart Attack
How long do stress tests last for? Approximately 45 minutes to 1 hour.
What type of monitoring is a Holter Monitor considered & Why? Ambulatory Monitoring. Allows you to move around and complete daily activities.
How many leads are placed on a Holter monitor patient and for how long? 5 Leads & 24hrs.
The recording of a Holter monitor is viewed on what type of monitor? Oscilloscope
Two most common Ambulatory Monitorings Continuous and Intermittent
Two other types of Ambulatory Monitoring Transtelephonic and Telemetry
Common Cardiovascular Pharmacological Agents/Medications Oxygen, Epinephrine, Dopamine, Isoproterenol, Beta-blockers(Propranolol,Metoprolol,Atenolol,& Esmolol), Lidocaine, Digitalis, Nitroglycerine, Morphine Sulfate, Verapamil
What is informed consent? Consent give by the patient who is made aware of any procedure to be performed, its risks, expected outcomes, and alternatives.
What is Patient Confidentiality? Key concept of HIPAA. A right of privacy and all information remaining privileged.
What are the 4 Elements of Negligence? Duty: duty of careDerelict: breach of duty to careDirect cause: legally recognizable injury occurs as a result of the breach of duty of careDamage: wrongful activity must have caused the injury or harm that occured.
Describe the Good Samaritan Law. Rendering of first aid by a health care professional at the scene of an accident or sudden injury. Provide medical care within the scope of their training without fear of being sued for negligence.
What is Tort? List Examples Wrongful act that results in injury to one person by another.Battery, Invasion of Privacy, & Defamation of Character
What is the proper Infection Control Chain of Infection? Agent, Portal of Exit, Mode of Transmission, Portal of Entry, & Susceptible Host.
Agents infectious organisms that are classified as viruses, bacteria, fungi, & parasites.
Portal of Exit method by which an infectious agent leaves its reservoir
Mode of Transmission specific ways in which microorganisms travel from the reservoir to the susceptible host.
5 Main Types of Mode of Transmission Contact: Direct & Indirect, Droplet, Airborne, Common vehicle, Vecterborne
Portal of Entry allows the infectious agent access to the susceptible host.
Susceptible Host the infectious agent enters a person who is not resistant or immune.
Medical Asepsis Destruction of pathogenic microorganisms after the leave the body.
Handwashing Most important means of preventing the spread of infection.
Barrier Protection Protective clothing that provides a barrier against infection.Masks, Goggles, Face Shields, Respirator, Gloves, PPE
What are the two types of Isolation Precautions? Standard & Transmission-Based Precautions
Standard Precautions Blood, all bodily fluids, secretions, excretions, nonintact skin, & mucous membranes
Transmission-Based Precautions Contact, Airborne, and Droplet Precautions
What does the Yellow in the Nuclear Medicine Symbold represent? Hazardous
Whatis an ABC Fire Extinguisher? This is the multipurpose dry chemical extinguisher. The ABC type is filled with monoammonium phosphate, a yellow powder that leaves a sticky residue.
Created by: YTIStudent09