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Carbohydrates

Midterm 2 Biochemistry

Carbohydrates The most abundant organic molecules on the planet; act as metabolites, components of complexes, and structural entities.
What is the carbohydrate general formula? (CH2O)m
Name the one carbohydrate which does not have a chiral center. dihydroxyacetone
T or F: Monomers and oligomers of carbohydrates are insoluble. False
Aldose Contains a carbonyl moiety at the end of the carbon chain.
Ketose Contains a carbonyl moiety one carbon away from the end of the carbon chain.
What is the formula for the number of aldoses? 2^(m-2)
What is the formula for the number of ketoses? 2^(m-3)
Stereoisomers Compounds with identical covalent binding apart from chiral connectivity.
Enantiomers Compounds with opposite chirality at all chiral centers; identical in properties except when interacting with other chiral molecules.
Epimers Compounds with opposite chirality at exactly one chiral center.
T or F: D sugars are more prevalent than L sugars. True
Cyclic sugars Sugars with at least four carbon atoms in which the carbonyl oxygen atom becomes apart of the ring.
T or F: Cyclic sugars form via a redox reaction. False
Hemiacetal/hemiketal Aldehyde and ketone derivatives which have the addition of an alcohol to the carbonyl group.
Anomeric carbon A carbon attached to two different oxygen atoms in a ring.
What are common substitutions on furanose and pyranose sugars? Amination, acetyl amination, carboxylation.
T or F: Sugar alcohols are formed via the reduction of sugars. True
________ are significant metabolic intermediates. Phosphate esters
Glycoside Any compound in which the hydroxyl group of the anomeric carbon is replaced via condensation.
T or F: All oligosaccharides are glycosides. True
Sucrose A disaccharide with glucose and fructose monomers linked at anomeric carbons.
T or F: Sugar hydroxyls are ionizable. False
Reducing sugars Can undergo ring-opening to form an open-chain aldehyde compound which can then be oxidized to carboxylic acids.
______ is the test used for reducing sugars. Benedict's test
T or F: Sucrose is a reducing sugar False
T or F: Reducing sugars must have a free anomeric carbon. True
T or F: the Reducing end of the sugar is involved in the glycosidic bond. False
Glycosides can be __-linked or __-linked. N, O
Nucleosides are an example of __-linked glycosides. N
Homoglycans A polysaccharide consisting one type of monomer.
Heteroglycans A polysaccharide consisting of more than one type of monomer.
The storage homoglycans are _____ and _____. starch, glycogen
The structural homoglycans are _____ and _____. cellulose, chitin
_______ are an example of a heteroglycan. Glycosaminoglycans
Cellulose has ____ types of linkages made up of _____ units. beta(1-4), glucose
Chitin has _____ types of linkages made up of _____ units. beta(1-4), GlcNAc
Glycosaminoglycans have _____ types of linkages made up of ______ units. beta(1-3,4) hyaluronic acid (GlcUA, GlcNAc)
Glycoconjugates Poly or oligosaccharides covalently linked to proteins or peptides.
Glycoconjugates include ______, ______, and _______. proteoglycans, peptidoglycans,glycoproteins
Proteoglycans are considered to be ________. glycosaminoglycans
The components of proteoglycans are _____ and ______. alduronic acid, GaIN GlcN GalNAc or GlcNAc units
Proteoglycans can be found in _____ and ______. cartilage, joint fluid
Peptidoglycans Polysaccharides linked to small proteins.
Peptidoglycans are hydrolyzed by _______. lysozyme
Gram (-) A thin peptidoglycan layer which separates two phospholipid bilayers.
Gram (+) One bilayer with a thicker peptidoglycan cell wall outside.
T or F: Gram (-) bacteria will bind to gram stain. False
Periplasmic space Space inside the cell membrane and inside the peptidoglycan layer.
In glycoproteins, there is always a glycosidic linkage at the _____ carbon. first
PTM glycosylation is more common in _______. eukaryotes
O-linked oligosaccharides GalNAc linked to ser or thr often with Gal or Sialic acid on GalNAc; proteoglycans joined via Gal-Gal-Xyl-ser.
N-linked oligosaccharides Usually linked to Asn.
Created by: goberoi