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Biology (H) Midterm

Midterm Prep

Atoms Basic unit of matter
Protons, neutrons, and electrons Subatomic particles that make up atoms
Nucleus Center of the atom
Protons Positively charged atom, in nucleus
Neutrons Neutral charge atom, in nucleus
Electrons Negatively charged atom, not in nucleus
Element Pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
Isotopes Elements that are different in neutrons contained
Compound Substance formed by chemical compound of two or more elements
Ionic bonds Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one to another
Covalent bonds Formed when one or more electrons are shared with one another
Ions Positively and negatively charged atoms
Molecule Smallest unit of most compounds
Cohesion Attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion Attraction between molecules of different substances
Polarity Uneven sharing of electrons in water
Mixture Two or more compounds or elements that are mixed but not chemically combined
Solution Mixture of two or more substances where the molecule are evenly distributed
Solute Substance that is dissolved
Solvent Substance that dissolves the solvent
pH scale Measure of hydrogen ions
Acid Any compound that forms h+ ions in a solutions
Base Compound that has a pH below 7 and have low h+ ions
Polymerization The joining of macromolecules
Protein, lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates 4 essential things living things need
Carbohydrates Humans main source of energy and used for structural purposes
Monosaccharides Single sugar molecules, benedict's solution tests this
Disaccharides Double sugar molecules, iodine solution tests this
Polysaccharides Many sugar molecules, biurets solution tests this
Lipids Biomolecule not soluble in water, can be used to store energy, important part of cell membrane, formed when glycerol combines with fatty acids and have lots of fat
Proteins Biomolecule that strengthens bones and tissue, gets its structure from chains of amino acids
Enzymes Protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions
Valence electrons Electrons that can form bonds
Reactants Substance that undergoes change during a chemical reaction
Products Substance that is the result of a chemical reaction
Species Organisms that are similar and can reproduce
Population Group of same species that live in the same area
Community Groups of different species that live in an area
Ecosystem All group of species that live in an environment
Autotrophs Organisms that can make their own food through photosynthesis
Photosynthesis When a plant makes their own food through sunlight and convert glucose and oxygen
Producers First level of food chain, make food for first level consumers
Consumers Organisms that rely on other organisms as a food source, also known as heterotrophs
Herbivore Organisms that eat only plants
Carnivore Organisms that eat only animals/meat
Omnivore Organisms that eat animals and plants
Decomposers Organisms that break down dead remains
Trophic level Level on a food chain
Food chain Cycle of what organisms eat
Food web Link of food chains
Climate Temperature and precipitation in a particular region
Abiotic factors A nonliving factor
Biotic factors A living factor
Niche Role an organism plays in its habitat
Habitat Where an organism lives
Resource Any necessity of life
Predation When an organism captures and feeds on another organism
Symbiosis Where two species live closely together
Mutualism Where both species benefit from the relationship
Parasitism When an organism lives on or in an organism and harms it
Commensalism When one organism benefits and the other isn't harmed or benefitted
Competition Two organisms that occupy the same niche fighting for resources
Biome Physical environment that contains climate characteristics and distinct plants and animals
Immigration Movement of individuals into an area
Exponential growth When individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
Limiting factor Factor that causes population growth to decrease
Cells Basic unit of lifeforms
Cell membrane Flexible barrier around the cell
Cell wall Strong layer around cell membrane, not in animal cells, provides support and protection for the cell
Nucleus Contains DNA and controls cell activities
Cytoplasm Material inside cell membrane
Prokaryotes These cells have no nucleus, small and simple
Eukaryotes Has a nucleus, has specialized structures that perform cellular functions
Organelles Specialized structures that perform cellular functions
Chromatin Material visible within the nucleus
Chromosomes Condensed chromatin, contains genetics that passes from generation of cells
Microtubules Hollow tubes of proteins
Cytoskeleton Helps the cell keep its shape
Nucleolus Where ribosome assembly begins
Nuclear envelope Allows material to move in and out of the nucleus
Ribosomes Produces proteins that come from the nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum Where proteins are modified and the cell membrane is assembled
Golgi Apparatus Proteins produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum move into a stack of membranes
Lysosomes Small organelles filled with enzymes
Vacuoles Where cells store materials in saclike structures
Vesicles Smaller vacuoles, especially those involved in transporting substances within the cell
Chloroplasts Cell that uses sunlight to create food through photosynthesis
Mitochondria Organelles that release energy from stored food molecules
Cell Membrane Regulates what enters and leaves the cell; also provides protection and support
Lipid Bilayer Double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
Concentration The mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Diffusion Process by which molecules move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Selectively Permeable Some substances can pass through the biological membrane
Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Facilitated Diffusion Molecules such as glucose that cannot cross the cell membrane's lipid bilayer directly move through protein channels instead
Endocytosis Large amounts of material are transported through movements of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis When large particles are taken directly into the cell by endocytosis
Exocytosis The removal of large amounts of material out of the cell
Created by: xander.lundblad



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