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Ch5 Integumentary

Cutler slides SUFA16

QuestionAnswer
5 components of integumentary system Skin, hair, nails, glands (oil and sweat), sensory receptors
What is Albinism? Inherited inability to produce melanin. (Melanocytes are present, however)
What does Vitiligo mean? Partial or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin.
What is the color of the skin with lack of oxygen? Cyanotic (bluish)
Color and cause of jaundice? Yellowish. Build up of bilirubin due to liver disease.
What layer of epidermis is only found in thick skin Stratum Lucidum
What does 'lucidum' mean (stratum lucidum)? Clear layer (in thick skin)
Which layer is known as the transitional layer? Stratum Granulosum
Most common cells in Stratum Granulosum layer? What do they produce? Main cell: Keratinocytes Produce: Lamellar granules
What do Lamellar granules do? Water repel and seal
What is apoptosis? Pre-programmed cell death
What layer of the epidermis does the basale layer touch? Stratum Spinosum
What is the purpose of the stratum spinosum? Strength and flexibility for skin
Epidermis layer that touches the Dermis? Stratum Basale
Why is the stratum basale known as a nursery? It is where the keratinocytes and melanocytes are germinated and grown
What does a melanocyte produce? Melatonin (pigment)
If stratum basale is burned off, what procedure may be necessary? Skin grafting
3rd phase of deep (dermis) wound healing Proliferative phase
What happens during the 3rd (proliferative) phase of deep wound healing? Extensive growth of epithelial cells under scab.
4th phase of deep (dermis) wound healing Maturation phase
What happens during the 4th (maturation) phase of deep wound healing? Scab sloughs off
2 types of non melanoma skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma
What is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer Basal cell carcinoma (78%)
2nd most common non-melanoma skin cancer? Describe it. Squamous cell carcinoma
What is Actinic keratosis and what causes it? Solar keratosis, a scaly or crusty growth that could become squamous cell cancer. Due to sun exposure.
About 90% of epidermis cells are of which type? Keratinocytes
What are the two types of Epidermis? 1. Thin (hairy) skin 2. Thick (hairless) skin
Name the 5 Layers of Epidermal Strata: 1. Stratum corneum 2. Stratum lucidum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum spinosum 5. Stratum basale
What mineral would be affected in people of northern climates who are deficient in vitamin D? Calcium (Ca+D = CaD)
Affects of Epidermal Wound Healing - Affects only the epidermis - Abrasions and minor burns - Basal cells break contact with basement membrane
What is Contact inhibition during the process of epidermal wound healing? Basal cells break contact with basement membrane and migrate towards one another. Stop when touch and build up to fill in abrasion with keratinocytes.
2 types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands Eccrine sudoriferous gland Apocrine sudoriferous gland
What is thermoregulation with regard to eccrine glands? Thermoregulatory sweating - regulation of body temp through perspiration
Most common sweat gland Eccrine
Gland responsible for thermoregulation Eccrine
Sweat gland responsible for emotional/sexual sweating Apocrine
Parts of body apocrine glands found? Armpits, groin, nipples, breasts, beard
Known for its milky sweat and body odor Apocrine gland
The pigment-producing cells of the epidermis (melanocytes) are located in which layer? Stratum Basale
Which layer has stem cells that undergo cell division to continually produce new keratinocytes? Stratum Basale
Which epidermal layer marks the transition between metabolically active cells of lower layers and the dead layers of keratinocytes of the upper layers? Stratum Granulosum
In the keratinization/skin cycle, what is the rate of growth? (How long is the keratinocyte life cycle)? 4-6 weeks
What happens during Keratinization/Skin Cycle? As cells are pushed to the surface, they acquire more and more keratin. As the approach the surface, they flatten and die and are sloughed off.
What happens during Psoriasis? Abnormal keratin growth (skin shedding in 7-10 days)
What are the signs of abnormal keratin growth? Most common places psoriasis is found? Flaky, silvery scales at skin surfaces ex.) knees, elbows, scalp
What skin cancer is the least common, but most deadly? Melanoma Skin Cancer
What does burns do to the human body? Destroys body's ability to regulate water loss (dehydration) and prevent infection by bacteria.
How are burns graded? Graded by severity (1*,2*,3*)
What are the five layers of the epidermal strata? (come, let's get sun burned!) stratum Corneum stratum Lucidum stratum Granulosum stratum Spinosum stratum Basale.
What are characteristics of the stratum corneum? 20-30 layers of flattened, dead keratinocytes. Overlap like snake scales. Corn means horn.
What is a callus? Increased cell and keratin production due to constant friction results in abnormal thickening
What are the characteristics of Epidermal Wound Healing? Affects ONLY the epidermis. Basal cells break contact with basement membrane and migrate towards one another, meet at contact inhibition, and grow upward as keratinocytes.
What is contact inhibition and when does it occur? Stimulates basal stem cells to divide and build new strata, thickening the epidermis during epidermal wound healing.
What takes place during Deep (Dermis) Wound Healing? Dermis and subcutaneous fat affected. Inflammatory phase blood clot. Migratory phase clot becomes scab. Granulation tissue forms, fills in cut. Scar (fibrosis).
Lines of cleavage (Tension Lines) Predominate direction of underlying collagen fibers. Used by surgeons to decide where to cut.
Carotene is a precursor to? Vitamin A
Skin color helps to protect us from? UV damage to DNA. Darker is more protected. All depends on genetics and proximity to sun.
Melanin pigment granules are produced and exported by? Melanocytes in the stratum basale
Melanin granules are the source of? Skin pigmentation
Melanin granules are taken up by? Melanin taken up by keratinocytes to protect them like an umbrella from the sun.
What is fibrosis? A raised or elevated scar the often forms after deep wound healing (normal scar tissue)
What is keloid? Extends BEYOND normal boundaries into surrounding tissues
What causes stretch marks? Damage to the dermis due to stretching
What is the Dermis? Dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastin fibers.
What are the structures found in the dermis? Blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles
What are epidermal ridges? Ridges and grooves that look like loops and whorls to the naked eye. Responsible for finger print pattern.
What do epidermal ridges do? Increase surface area epidermis for traction and tactile (touch) sensitivity.
What layers are destroyed in a 3rd degree burn? Epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat destroyed
What is damage in a 1st degree burn? Epidermis only
Stimulates basal stem cells to divide, building new strata, thickening the epidermis Epidermal growth factor (EGF)
Another name for sweat glands? Sudoriferous
Another name for oil glands? Sebaceous
Which is responsible for the print left on surfaces by the fingers: sweat or oil? Sweat. Oil glands are found only with hair follicles and the hands and feet have no hair!
What are the two major cell types in the epidermis Keratinocytes & Melanocytes
What type of epithelium makes up the epidermis? Keratinized stratified squamous
The most common cell in the epidermis Keratinocytes
Cell that produces proteins & lamellar granules Keratinocytes
Nail structures include Free edge, nail body, lunula, eponychium, & nail root
The eponychium is the ______ of the nail cuticle
Actual growth of the nail occurs in the ___ Nail Matrix
A pressure ulcer is also known as Decubitus Ulcer
Usually found over bony prominences- heels, sacrum, ischial tuberosities, elbows Decubitus/pressure ulcer
Causes constant deficiency of blood flow to tissues, causing tissue death at site Decubitus/pressure ulcer
Name the five components of the integumentary system. Skin, Hair, Nails, Oil & sweat glands, and Sensory receptors
Name some skin and nail health indicators. Emotions (blushing, frowning), Physiology (sweating, goosebumps), Homeostatic imbalances ( hypoxia/heart fail, rashes/ systemic infections), Abuses (bruises, wheals), Circulation health (reperfusion of nail beds) Condition of the nails (fungal infections)
Name three parts of the skin. Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous layer
The skin is also known as the cutaneous membrane
Name the accessory structures of ear wax glands and their functions. Ceruminous glands: modified sweat glands in external ear, Cerumen: waxy, lubricating secretion, combines with sebaceous secretion, together, form cerumen (earwax), Waterproofs: ear canal and prevent bacteria and fungi from entering cells.
What are some accessory structures of nails? Dead, keratinzed epidermal cells, protect the ends of the fingers and toes, support via counter-pressure, allows us to grasp and manipulate objects and grooming
name an accessory structure of the skin and its components? Pili are hairs in the skin – originate in dermis Anatomy (lab structures to know): Shaft, root, follicle, bulb, papilla, and matrix Arrector pili muscles, the hair root plexus of nerves, and sebaceous glands Hair matrix responsible for hair growth
When melanin is replaced by air bubbles in the shaft, which is the resulting hair color? ) gray
name another accessory structure and it functions? Sebaceous (oil) glands Branched acinar (rounded) glands Connected to hair follicles mostly Absent in palms and soles Sebum Oily secretion coats hair surfaces, prevents excessive evaporation of water from skin, keeps skin soft, and inhibits some bacte
Created by: CutlerSUFA16