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Biology of Cells 7

Biology of Cells Chapter 7 Notecards

Amphipathic contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Phospholipids Make up plasma membrane, allows for selective permeability, amphipathic, want to escape from water, head (hydrophilic) and tail (hydrophobic), can move and flip
Fluid Mosaic membrane is mostly phospholipids with a "mosaic" of proteins in it
Lateral Movement Drifting of phospholipids and proteins within the same layer, happens about 100,000,000 times per second
Flip-flop movement Phospholipids and proteins move from one bilayer to the other, RARE, about once per month
Movement and Temperature less movement = colder temperature = less fluidity
Proteins determine most of the membrane's specific functions
Peripheral proteins bound to the surface of the membrane
Integral proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core of the membrane, has to be hydrophobic if it is in the hydrophobic membrane core
Transmembrane proteins span the entire membrane
Alpha helix crosses over the entire membrane
Functions of membrane proteins transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell to cell recognition, intercellular joining, attatchment to cytoskeleton and ECM
Carbohydrates allow cell to cell recognition
Glycolipids (Sugar fats) sugar is COVALENTLY bonded to lipids
Glycoproteins (sugar proteins) sugar is COVALENTLY bonded to proteins
Cholesterol inserted between tails of phospholipids, can alter membrane fluidity, serves as buffer for temperature, prevents solidification
Selective permeability hydrophobic (nonpolar) molecules pass through hydrophobic bilayer easily, hydrophilic cannot cross easily so they are aided by transport proteins
Transport proteins allow passage of hydrophilic substances, all are transmembrane proteins
Channel protein provide a hydrophilic channel through the protein which can be gated
Aquaporins passage of water through channel proteins
Ion channels passage of ions through channel proteins
Gated channels open or close in response to a stimulus through channel proteins
Carrier proteins binds to a specific molecule and carries the protein from top of the membrane to the bottom and let it go
Membrane (solute) transport molecules in solution move randomly causing mixing, 2 types: passive and active
Concentration amount of solute in a solvent
Concentration Gradient more solute in one part of the solvent than another
Active transport energy needed for this transport (specifically ATP) to move solutes against their concentration gradients, raises active potential, requires transport proteins
Passive transport no energy needed due to diffusion
Simple diffusion transports solutes through membrane which eventually eliminates concentration gradient
Facilitated Diffusion transports solutes through transport proteins
Osmosis diffusion of water across a membrane, water moves from high to low concentration but solutes move from low to high concentration
Tonicity ability of a solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water due to osmosis
Isotonic solution equal solutes inside and outside the cells so no change in volume
Hypertonic Solution higher solute in solution so water flows out of the cell and the volume of the cell decreases
Hypotonic solution higher solute in the cell so water flows into the cell and the volume of the cell increases
Osmoregulate when organisms regulate water balance
Plasmolysis when a cell membrane pulls away from a cell wall due to hypertonic solutions
Flaccid cell happens in an isotonic solution with a cell with a cell wall, no water movement causes cell to become flaccid
Cotransport active transport of a solute drives transport of another solution
Uniport moves only 1 way (in or out)
Symport moves 2 only 1 way (in or out)
Antiport one moves in and one moves out
Bulk transport requires ATP to move larges molecules in bulk across the membrane via vesicles
Exocytosis transports substances OUT of the cell
Endocytosis transports substances INTO the cell
Created by: cassiepasulka



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