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Mrs. D - Porifera

Kingdom Animalia collective classification of multicellular organisms invertebrates and vertebrates
Colonial Hypothesis multicellularity may have arisen when cells produced by a dividing protist remained together colonial protists
Syncytial Hypothesis multicellularity could have arisen when plasma membranes were formed within the cytoplasm of a large, multinucleate protist multiple fission
Phylum Porifera cellular organization, multicellular, division of labor, asexual/sexual reproduction, symmetry, mostly marine sponges
Porifera pore-bearing/pore-bearers 9000 species of sponges
Radial Symmetry two or more planes that divide the organism into mirror images sponges or jellyfish
Asymmetry no symmetry amoeba
Sessile permanently attached to a substrate all adult sponges
Intracellular Digestion within the cell bacteria, protists, algae, detritus
Ostia (ostium) incurrent pores; many small pores; allows for the passage of water into the spongocoel Grantia or Scypha
Osculum (oscula) excurrent pore: large pore; allows water to exit spongocoel; can have more than one Grantia or Scypha
Spongocoel internal cavity; not a true body cavity; food/oxygen extracted from water in cavity Grantia or Scypha
Pinacocytes flat cells forming the outer epithelium any sponge
Porocyte cells that line the pore and regulates water flow any sponge
Choanocytes "collar cells", flagellated cells that line the interior; creates the water current and filters for food any sponge
Mesoglea gelatinous protein matrix that fills the space between the pinacocytes and choanocytes mesohyl - another name
Amoebocyte cell found in the mesoglea; specialized for reproduction, secreting skeleton, transporting food, storing food, and forming contractile rings any sponge
Acoelomate NOT a true coelom any sponge
Spicules calcareous or siliceous; variety of shapes and sizes see spicule handout
Spongin Fibers internal network of flexible protein fibers composed of collagen bath sponge
Ascon (asconoid) vase-like shape; simplest and least common; ostia lead directly to spongocoel Class Calcarea
Sycon (syconoid) sponge wall appears folded; water enters through dermal pores which connect to radial canals which open into the spongocoel Class Calcarea or Hexactinellida
Leucon (leuconoid) extensively branched canals; incurrent canals open into choanocyte chambers and excurrent canals lead away from the chambers Class Hexactinellida or Demospongiae
Color wide variety red, yellow, orange, green, purple, blue, black
Toxic sponges contain toxins on the spicules Fire Sponge
Reproduction asexual or sexual regeneration/ egg and sperm
Regeneration asexual; replacement of injured or lost body parts any sponge
Gemmules asexual; internal buds; masses of encapsulated amoeboid cells produced during unfavorable conditions some sponges
Sexual Reproduction egg and sperm; fertilization in mesoglea; zygote to ciliated larvae; 2 days larvae settles some sponges
Monoecious both sexes in one individual most sponges
Dioecious separate sexes some sponges
Cross-fertilization exchange sperm and egg primarily used by most sponges
Class Calcarea a.k.a. Calcispongiae; limy sponges; calcium carbonate spicules; fringe of spicules around osculum; needle or 3-4 rayed spicules; all three body forms; all marine Grantia (Scypha), Leucosolena
Class Hexactinellida a.k.a. Hyalospongiae; glassy sponges; silicon dioxide spicules; six-rayed; intricate lattice; sycon or leucon; all marine; deep water Euplectella - Venus Flower Basket
Class Demospongiae people/natural sponges; silicon dioxide or spongin fibers or both; needle or 4-rayed spicules; all marine except one family; brilliantly colored Spongilla (fresh), Haliclona (finger), Microciona (red beard), sheepswool (bath), fire sponge, loggerhead
Sponillidae only family of freshwater sponges Spongilla
Created by: Mrs. D