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LEA Bones/Joints Leg

LEA Bones/Joints/Lymph/Vein/Misc Leg

QuestionAnswer
during growth spurts, bones grow faster then muscle placing stress on the epiphyseal plates..this causes osteochondrosis
what composes the pelvic girdle the sacrum, right and left hip bones joined anteriorly by the pubic symphysis
what connects the axial skeleton to the lower limb pelvic girdle
what bone is common to the axial skelton and the pelvic girdle sacrum
where is the limb bud derived from the lateral wall of the trunk
which development occurs first, upper or lower limbs upper limbs (lower lags a week behind
in what week in utero do the lower lumb buds appear 5th week (from L2-S2 segments)
explain the development of limbs -limb buds bend ventrally to put knees/elbows pointing laterally, UL externally rotate to put thumbs laterally and LL internally rotate to put big toe medially
when do digits form IU at 7th week
Simplified version of limb formation -UL and LL form limb buds from the lateral body- then they elongate, develop flexures, adn rotate in opposite directions
does the fibula articulate with the femur no, just the tibia
what is the purpose of the diaganol disposition of the femur it recenters the support directly inferior to the trunk to make walking and standing more efficient
where is the adductor tubercle located medial side of the femur (just above the medial epicondyle)
Hip bone is formed by the fusion of what 3 bones, and when ilium, ischium and pubis at the end of the teeneage years
the lateral surface of the ala of the ilium has 3 rough curved lines, what are they and what do they demarcate posterior, anterior and inferior gluteal lines demarcate the proximal attachments of the 3 large gluteal muscles
what marks the superior end of the greater sciatic notch PIIS
what lies in between the Greater and lesser sciatic notch ischial spine
where does the iliac crest (thick edge of the ilium) extend between ASIS to the PSIS
the symphyseal surface of the pubis articulates with what the corresponding surface of the contralateral hip bone
what does the auricular surface of the ilium articulate with corresponding surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint
what forms the inferiomedial boder of the obturator foramen ramus of the ischium comes down and joins the inferior ramus of the pubis (to form the ischiopubic ramus)
what forms the inferior margin of the greater sciatic notch and is a ligament attachment site ischial spine
what forms the anteriomedial part of the hip bonem contributing to the anterior part of the acetabulum pubis
what is the pubis divided into a flattened body and two rami, one inferior and one superior
the anteriosuperior border of the united pubis bodies and symphysis forms something which provides attachment for ab muscles pubic crest
small projections at the lateral ends of the pubic crest are what, and used for? pubic tubercles are used for attachment of the inguinal ligament
posterior margin of the superior ramus of the pubis has a sharp rasied edge that forms the pelvic brim pecten pubis
what bones compose the obturator foramen and what travels through it pubis, ischium and their rami (sup/inf ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium)- it carries the obturator nerve and vessels
what margin of the acetabulum is incomplete inferiorly at the acetabulum notch
how are the hip bones joined to each other (L and R) they are joined posteriorly at the sacrum and anteriorly by the pubis symphysis
what is the first and second biggest bone in the body femur and tibia respectively
the head of the femur is covered with articular cartilage everywhere but a medial depression...why it is the fovea for the ligament of the head that carries an artery supplying the epiphysis of the head
Angle of Inclination angle between the neck of the femur and the shaft
what happens to the angle of declination as one ages it decreases (norm is 130)-the angle on inclination gives the femur its oblique position
torsion angle (laying femur on a table or looking down from above the femur) a transverse line through the femoral condyles and a line through the femoral neck (Men=7, women = 12)
the site where the femur neck meets the femur shaft posteriorly intertrocanteric crest (joins the greater and lesser trocahnters posteriorly)
the site where the neck meets the shaft of the femur anteriorly introchanteric line (joins the greater and lesser trochanters anteriorly)
what does the intertrochanteric line (on the anterior femur) continue as posteriorly and distally the spiral line
there is a rounded elevation in the middle of the trochanteric crest quadrate tubercle
the greater trochanter overhangs a deep depression on the neck of the femur trochanteric fossa
the posterior aspect of the femur has a medial and lateral linea aspera, what does each blend with superiorly Lateral: gluteal tuberosity Medial: pectineal and spiral line
what does the linea aspera blend with inferiorly medial and lateral supracondylar lines
this side of the femoral condyles is larger and also has an elevation above it medial condyle has a larger and more prominent medial epicondyle, superior to which is another elevation the adductor tubercle
what abnormal position can occur if the angle of declination is decreased coxa vara genu valgum = knock knees
what abnormal postion can occur if the angle of declination is increased coxa valga genu varum = bow legged
gerdys tubercle - on the tibia-the anterior lateral aspect of the lateral condyle
how many surfaces/borders does the tibia have -it is a triangle- with 3 borders/3 surfaces- Medial, Lateral, Posterior
on the posterior surface of hte proximal part of the tibia is a rough diaganol ridge soleal line - origin of the soleus muscle
fibula serves as mainly a muscle attacher, insertion for 1 and origin for 8 Insertion: Biceps FemorisOrigin: PL,PB,PT,EDL,EHL,FHL,Soleus,TP
how many borders and surfaces does fibula have triangular - 3 borders/3 surfacesB: anterior, interosseous, posteriorS: medial, lateral, posterior
a bone that is a common source for grafting b/c supposedly bears no weight fibula
what supports the head of the talus and transfers weight from the talus to the forefoot spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular)
where can you find the spring ligament (maintains the medial long arch) extends across and fills a wedge shaped gap between the talar shelf of the calc and inferior margin of the navicular
the talar body narrows into a posterior process that features a groove for? Flexor Hallucis Longus tendon
what does the talus have posteriorly a large posterior process for the FHL, flanked by a prominent lateral tubercle and a less prominent medial tubercle
what is the largest and strongest bone in the foot calcaneus
the posterior part of the calcaneus has a massive weight bearing prominence; the calcaneal tuberosity..what does it have medial, lateral and anterior tubercles(only the medial contacts the ground during stance)
anterior to the tuberosity of the cuboid on the lateral and inferior surfaces of the bone is a groove for what tendon peroneus longus
what is the smallest cuneiform intermediate
what is the largest cuneiform medial
os trigonum accessory ossicle at the lateral tubercle of the talus (posterior part of talus)
what joint forms the connection between the lower limb and the pelvic girdle hip joint
what type of joint is the hip -multiaxial ball and socket, synovial joint
teh acetabular rim is missing an inferior segment called the acetabular notch, what bridges this space -the transverse acetabular labrum (a continuation of the acetabular labrum
what is the centrally located, non-articular part of the head of the femur called -acetabular fossa, formed mainly by the ischium
what is the orbicular zone of the joint capsule of the hip fibers that circle around the neck
the ligaments of the hip pass in spiral fashion around the hip from the pelvis to the femur, what are they -3 of them-Y shaped iliofemoral ligament-pubofemoral ligament-ischiofemoral ligament (weakest)
which are stronger the anterior or posterior hip ligaments -anterior (ilio and pubofemoral)ischiofemoral is weak
is the ligament of the head of the femur important in joint integrity no, its main purpose is to transmit the blood vessel (artery to the head of the femur)
what is the movement of the hip joint -felxion/extension-adduction/abduction-medial/lateral rotation-circumduction
what type of joint is the knee hinge type of synovial joint
what movements does the knee have -flexion/extension combined with gliding, rolling and rotation around a vertical axis
name the 3 articulations of the knee joint -medial femorotibial-lateral femorotibial-femoropatellar
which support system is most important in stabilizing a normally weak joint (its like 2 balls sitting on a warped table) -muscles-ligaments also play a smaller role
what is the most important muscle in stabilzing the knee joint -quadratus femorus (esp VL and VM)-strengthening these can prevent most knee injuries
what is the most stable position of the knee (when the articualar surfaces are most congruent and ligaments are taut) -erect extended position
what are the extracapsular/capsular ligaments of the knee -Arcuate popliteal ligament-Oblique popliteal Ligament-Medial Collateral Ligament (capsular)-Lateral Collateral Ligament(extracap)-patellar ligament
what splits the tendon of the biceps femoris into two parts -lateral (fibular) collateral ligament
what are the relationships of the FCL and TCL to the meniscus -the FCL is seperated from the lateral meniscus by the popliteus tendon-the TCL is attached to the medial meniscus
which is weaker and damaged more, the TCL or FCL the TCL(medial) is injured more and often injured with the medial meniscus
what is the unhappy triad (caused by a lateral blow or lateral twisting) -the medial collateral lig and medial meniscus (b/c they are connected)-the ACL
expansion of the tendon of SM that reinforces the knee joint posteriorlly -oblique popliteal ligament spans the intracondylar fossa
the oblique popliteal ligament reinforces the knee posteriorlly, what other ligament does this -arcuate popliteal ligament supports posterolaterally
when are children bowlegged, when are they knock-kneed -bowlegged at 1-2 years-knock-knees at 2-4 years
what are the intra-articular ligaments of the knee -cruciate ligaments-meniscus
how does the PCL run -PAM ApPLES-posterior runs anteriorly to attach medially
how does the ACL run -PAMS ApPLES-anterior runs posteriorly to attach laterally superiorly
what joins the anterior edges of the menisci transverse ligament of the knee
which meniscus if larger and C shaped medial meniscus
which meniscus is smaller, circle shaped and less mobile lateral meniscus
how and where are the tibia and fibula connected -superior tibiofibular joint-inferior tibiofibular sydesmosis-interosseuous membrane of the shafts
in which direction to all the fibers of the tibfib ligaments and interosseous run -they run inferiorly from the tibia to the fibula-so they resist the dowward pull placed on the fibula by 8 of the nine muscles attached to it but ALLOW slight upward movt of the fibula
what passes through the hiatus at the superior end of the tibfib interosseus membrane anterior tibial vessels
what passes through the small hiatus at the inferior end of the tibfib interosseus membrane perforating branch of the peroneal artery
what type of joint is the superior tibfib joint plane synovial joint
describe the superior tibfib joint -a flat surface on the fibula articulates with a flat surface on the PL aspect of the tibial condyle
what ligaments strengthen the superior tibfib joint -anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments (dont confuse these with ant/post inferior tibiofbular ligaments of the syndesmosis)
what tendon crosses the superior tibfib joint posteriorlu the popliteus tendon
what type of joint is the tibiofibular syndesmosis -compound fibrous joint
what ligaments strengthen the inferior tibfib joint (tibfib syndesmosis) -tibfib interosseuous lig-anterior/posterior inferior tibfib ligament
what type of joint is the ankle hinge type synovial joint
when is the grip of the malleoli on the talus trochlea the strongest (i.e when is the ankle the strongest) during dorsiflexion because this forces the wider anterior part of the talus posteriorly between the malleoli
when do most ankle injuries occur (when is it weakest) during plantarflexion and inversion
what ligaments strengthen the ankle joint -lateral ligaments (anterior talofib, posterior talofib, calcaneofib)-medial deltoid ligaments (tibionav, tibiocalc, ant tibiotalar, post tibiotalar)
which ligaments of the ankle are strongest the medial deltoid ligaments
the medial deltoid ligament of the malleous (of the ankle joint) fans out and attaches distally via 4 bands (to what bones) -talus (ant/post tibiotalus)-navicular (tibionavicular)-calcaneus (tibiocalcanel)
which is the strongest ligament of the lateral ligaments of the ankle joint posterior talofibular
what does the medial deltoid ligament of the ankle protect it from -too much eversion and subluxation
what are the main movements of the ankle joint dorsiflexion and plantarfelxion of the foot
what is the most frequent injured ligament of the body -anterior talofibular ligament of the weak lateral ligaments
Created by: felicia71180