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4 - Earthquakes


P waves Waves that travel the fastest and don't do any damage.
Fault Place where 2 plates meet to create earthquake. Most famous one is in California.
Focus Point in the earth's crust where an earthquake begins
Moment Magnitude Scale more accurate than richter scale, combines seismograph readings and rock movement.
Modified Mercalli Scale Records visual damage as an indication of strength, 12 grades on the scale.
Animal Behaviour (Predicting Earthquakes) Not scientific. Animals can detect P waves which humans cant & they react to them.
Historical Records (Predicting Earthquakes) General prediction, unreliable. Earthquake once every 100 yrs = 10% chance every decade.
Rock Stress (Predicting Earthquakes) Most reliable but not exact prediction. Use strainmeters, tiltmeters, Satellite/GPS, siesmographs.
Foreshocks Tremors before earthquake happens
San Andreas Fault Most famous fault line in the world
The Big One Large earthquake that is predicted to occur before 2032 along San Andreas Fault.
Rift Valleys Where earthquakes occur when convection currents split the continent apart in places such as the East African Rift Valley.
Seismograph Equipment used to measure strength of earthquake
Richter scale Readings from a seismograph that measures the magnitude (strength) of an earthquake.
Tsunami Destructive wave caused by an underwater earthquake. Japan 2011.
Elastic rebound It is the most common cause of earthquakes, as layers of rock are exposed to pressure from opposite sides.
What year did the Haitian earthquake happened The Haitian earthquake of 2010
How many people are killed in Haitian earthquake 160,000 people died
What was the mean reason people were injured 300,000 people estimated to have been injured-mostly from falling debris
Liquefaction Intense shaking causes ground water to mix with mud turning the soil into liquid, structures kobe japan 5000 deaths
Continental-continental Both continental and light so neither subduct. Both plates buckle and are pushed upward. Mountain ranges are created. E.g Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate buckled to create The Himalayas.
Epicentre Directly above the focus, shortest distance to the surface, seismic waves strongest here,most damage caused
Seismic Waves Vibrations from the focus, cause damage in urban areas, Eg. Haiti 2010
Created by: 5thyear201819



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