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Earthquakes

TermDefinition
P waves Waves that travel the fastest and don't do any damage.
Fault
Focus
Moment Magnitude Scale more accurate than richter scale, combines seismograph readings and rock movement.
Modified Mercalli Scale Records visual damage as an indication of strength, 12 grades on the scale.
Animal Behaviour (Predicting Earthquakes) Not scientific. Animals can detect P waves which humans cant & they react to them.
Historical Records (Predicting Earthquakes) General prediction, unreliable. Earthquake once every 100 yrs = 10% chance every decade.
Rock Stress (Predicting Earthquakes) Most reliable but not exact prediction. Use strainmeters, tiltmeters, Satellite/GPS, siesmographs.
Foreshocks
Earthquake Zones All major earthquake zones are found in the faults at plate boundaries.
San Andreas Fault
The Big One Large earthquake that is predicted to occur before 2032 along San Andreas Fault.
Divergent Boundaries Where earthquakes occur at shallow depths along mid-ocean ridges when plumes of magma are forced through gaps in crust.
Rift Valleys Where earthquakes occur when convection currents split the continent apart in places such as the East African Rift Valley.
Seismograph
Richter scale Readings from a seismograph that measures the magnitude (strength) of an earthquake.
Tsunami
Elastic rebound It is the most common cause of earthquakes, as layers of rock are exposed to pressure from opposite sides.
Earthquakes (where they occur) 80% of all seismic activity occurs along the Pacific oceans subduction zones. Earthquakes mainly occur at destructive and passive boundaries.
What year did the Haitian earthquake happened The Haitian earthquake of 2010
How many people are killed in Haitian earthquake 160,000 people died
What was the strengthsmic waves strongest here, Haitian earthquake 7.0 magnitude earthquake caused them to collapse
What was the mean reason people were injured 300,000 people estimated to have been injured-mostly from falling debris
Economic Development Nearly 200 million people have been killed by earthquakes in the last 100 yrs, most in developing or underdeveloped countries because building etc aren't built to survive earthquakes even minor earthquakes can cause a lot of damage which equals more death
Population Density Urban areas have much higher population than rural places so earthquakes and epicentres close to urban areas have more deaths
Time Of Day Earthquakes during the day have higher casualty rates than at night because streets are unpopulated
Magnitude/Aftershocks The higher the magnitude of a earthquake the more likely it is to cause damage ,a earthquake close to the surface is likely to have more damage than a deep one
Liquefaction Intense shaking causes ground water to mix with mud turning the soil into liquid, structures collaspe.eg kobe japan 5000 deaths
Oceanic-oceanic Two oceanic plates pushing together. Heavier oceanic plate is pushed downwards into the mantle and subducts. Hotspots are created. Trenches are created e.g Marianas Trench
Continental-oceanic Continental plates are pushed together. Oceanis plate is heavier and subducts. Hotspot on continental plate is created. Trench is created.
Continental-continental Both continental and light so neither subduct. Both plates buckle and are pushed upward. Mountain ranges are created. E.g Indo-Australian plate and Eurasian plate buckled to create The Himalayas.
Epicentre Directly above the focus, shortest distance to the surface, seismic waves strongest here,most damage caused
Seismic Waves Vibrations from the focus, cause damage in urban areas, Eg. Haiti 2010
Created by: 201617A