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FUN 5 & 8

Chapters 8, 10, & 19

What is nutrition? Total of all processes involved in the taking in and utilization of food
How does nutrition play a role in all body processes? Directly or indirectly
How do nurses promote good nutrition? Help the patient understand the importance of good diet and encouraging dietary compliance
What are diet planning guides used for? Help people maintain optimal nutrition
What are dietary standards? Guidelines describing how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce the risk for major chronic diseases
What are dietary guidelines for Americans? Recommendations for the general public that are intended to help people choose an overall healthy diet
What did the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) take over for? Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
What are the DRI's? Set of nutrient based values that can be used for both assessing and planning meals
What do the DRI's form the basis for? Daily values used in the nutrition fact labels on food
What are the DRI's intended to help? Individuals optimize their health, prevent disease, and avoid consuming too much of any one nutrient
What are essential nutrients? Those that our body cannot make amounts necessary for good health
What do essential nutrients do? Provide energy, build and repair tissue, and regulate body processes
How many kcals do carbohydrates and proteins have? 4 kcal/g
How many kcals do fats have? 9 kcal/g
What do essential nutrients help support? Metabolism
What is metabolism? Combination of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms
How many kcals are in lean meat? 12 kcals/g
How many kcals are in fish oil? 27 kcals/g
What is a kilocalorie (kcal)? Amount of energy that is provided by that food
What is the percentage of carbohydrates that are of total calorie input (TCI)? 45%-65%
What is the main function of carbohydrates? Provide energy
What are simple carbohydrates? Simple sugars, monosaccharide's, and disaccharides
Where are simple carbohydrates found? Naturally in many nutritious foods such as milk and fruits
What are complex carbohydrates? Polysaccharide's
Where are complex carbohydrates found Starch, glycogen, and dietary proteins
What is more important to choose, simple or complex carbohydrates? Complex carbohydrates
What are some examples of complex carbohydrates? Rice and wheat pasta
Where is glycogen stored? Liver
When energy needs are met, how is the excess carbohydrates stored? As glycogen
Once the glycogen stores are full, how is the excess carbohydrates stored? They are converted to fat and stored as adipose tissue
What is adipose tissue? Body's storage form of fat that helps insulate the body from temperature extremes and serves as a cushion to protect organs & other tissues
What does fat provide? Satiety; also adds flavor and aroma to foods
Define fats (lipids) Saturated fatty acids, the chemical bonds are completely filled or saturated with hydrogen, they are generally of animal origin and solid at room temperature, they increase blood cholesterol levels and risk of atherosclerosis
Does cholesterol provide energy in the body? No -
Where is cholesterol synthesized and found? Liver; found in foods of animal origin
What is the average intake of dietary cholesterol? No more than 300mg/day
What must happen to fat before it can be digested? Emulsified by bile
What makes up the bulk of the body's lean tissues and organs? Protein
What is necessary for tissue growth & repair, as well as wound healing? Protein
How many amino acids are there? 22
Of the 22 amino acids, how many are essential? 9
How must the 9 amino acids be obtained? From the diet
What are complete proteins? Ones that contain all 9 essential amino acids in sufficient quantity and ratio for the body's needs
Describe complete proteins Generally of animal origin and found in foods such as meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs
What are incomplete proteins lacking in? One or more of the essential amino acids
Describe incomplete proteins Generally of plant origin and found in foods such as grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds
What is it recommend when it comes to incomplete proteins? Always put 2 or more incomplete proteins together, such as rice and beans
How are vitamins and minerals best received? From a varied balanced diet
What is vitamin C essential for? Wound healing
What can the body make vitamin D from? Exposure to sunlight
What does vitamin K play a role in and where is it found? Blood clotting, and is found in meat, liver, and green leafy vegetables
What can a large fluctuation of vitamin K intake alter? The effects of anticoagulation drugs
What are sodium and potassium important for? Nerve and muscle function
What does iron help? Transportation of oxygen in the blood
What is the most vital nutrient to life? Water
What percentage of body weight does water make up in an adult? 60%
What percentage of body weight does water make up in an infant? 90%
How many kcals is recommended during lactation? Additional 500 kcal/day, as well as an increase of fluids and protein
What are the common dietary inadequacies during adolescence? Iron and calcium
Energy is needed through out the life span except for what age group? Geriatrics
Describe caffeine Is a drug that is a central nervous system stimulant and a diuretic
Define pronation Rotation of the arm so that the palm is down
Define supination Rotation of the arm so that the palm is up
Define abduction Moves a bone or limb away from the body's midline
Define adduction Moves a bone or limb towards the midline of the body
Define flexion The action of bending a limb or joint
Define dorsiflexion The backward flexion (bending), as of the hand or foot
What is important to consider in older adults with mobility? Fragile skin, support joints when moving in bed because they lose flexibility and joint mobility
What are older adults scared of? Mechanical lift devices
What is body mechanics? Area of physiology that studies muscle action and how muscles function in maintaining the posture of the body and prevention of injury during activity
What are the principles of body mechanics? Maintain appropriate body alignment, maintain wide base of support, bend knees and hips, DO NOT bend from the waist, NO twisting, and keep feet shoulder width apart
What is mobility? The ability to move around freely
What is immobility? The inability to move around freely
What are the complications of immobility? Muscle atrophy, asthenia, contractures, osteoporosis, pressure ulcers, and venostasis
How can muscle atrophy and asthenia be prevented? Doing any type of exercises
What are contractures? Permanent shortening of muscles
How can osteoporosis be prevented? Walking
How are pressure ulcers created? Not turning patient, shearing force, and bony prominences
What is another name for pneumonia or pulmonary embolism? Atelectasis
What is venostasis? Poor circulation in lower legs
What can lead to atelectasis? Shallow breathing and immobility
What can prevent negative immobility affects? 2 hours of activity / day
What are some examples of assistive devices? Pillows, foot boots, trochanter rolls, sand bags, trapeze bars, and foot boards
What do foot boards help prevent? Foot drop
What is the semi-fowlers position? Head of bed is elevated 30 degrees
How do you avoid shearing when transferring a patient? Assess and ask the patient how much they are able to assist with movement
What is the orthopneic position? Patient is sitting in bed at 90 degree angle or sometimes resting in forward tilt while supported by a pillow on overbed table
What is the sims position? Lying on side with knee and thigh drawn to chest (best position for enema)
What is CSM? Circulation, Sensation, and Movement - the assessment used in neurovascular function or circulation
What is the role of the nurse for CSM? Assess skin color, temperature, movement, sensation, pulses, capillary refill, and pain
What are some causes of compartment syndrome? Compression from external devices, takes 4-6 hours
What does ROM stand for? Range of Motion
How is ROM defined? Movement of he body that involves the muscles and joints in natural directional movements
At what point do you stop ROM? When there is pain or tension
What is passive ROM? Performed by the caregiver
What is active ROM? Performed by the patient
When transferring a patient, what reduces the risk of injury to patient and worker? Using a mechanical lift
If transferring a patient via lift will cause pain to a patient, what is best to do? Give patient pain meds 30 minutes prior to transferring them
Who do the majority of patient falls affect? Very young and elderly
What is the proper way to use the gait belt? Walk to the side of patient with one arm around patient and hand on the belt, walk on the weaker side of patient
What is one of the best ways to ensure a restraint free environment? Have family stay with patient 24/7
What must you do when patient is restrained? Orientate patient frequently, explain everything, and maintain toileting schedule
What are the disadvantages to SRD's? Contributes to patient immobility, dehydration & incontinence, increased skin tares, and circulation problems
What are the seven things required for using a SRD? Must have order, must try other alternatives first, must use least restrictive method, must release restraint q 2 hrs, must assess skin under restraint, only tie restraint to bed frame, and documentation
List some of the required documentation for SRD use? Reason for restraint, expected behavior to have restraint removed, and how frequently you are assessing patient with SRD
Created by: tandkhopkins
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