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Pt. CARE Test 2

Module 2/Test 2

Bradycardia A slow heart rate. Less than 60bpm.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Disease of the lungs in which inspiratory and expiratory lung capacity is diminished.
Cyanosis A condition in which the blood does not supply enough oxygen to the body, causing a bluish tone to the lips and fingertips.
Diastolic The blood pressure reading that occurs during the relaxation of the ventricles.
Dyspnea Difficult breathing resulting from insufficient airflow to the lungs.
Hypercapnia Carbon dioxide being retained in the arterial blood.
Hypothalamus The ventral and medial region of the diencephalon of the brain.
Hypoxemia Low levels of oxygen in the blood.
Korotkoff sounds Extraneous sounds heard during the taking of blood pressure and may be tapping, knocking, or swishing around.
Systolic The blood pressure reading taken during the contraction of the ventricles while the blood is in the arteries.
Tachycardia More than 100bpm
Vital signs are also known as Cardinal signs
What does the hypothalamus regulate Temperature
Pyrexia is Fever
Vital signs measure the following Body temp, pulse, respiration, blood pressure
True or false. A patient's vital signs cannot be established with one reading because of the many variables that can make one reading unreliable. True
As body temperature increases the body's demand for _____ increases. Oxygen
What are the symptoms of fever? Increased pulse and respiration, general discomfort and aching, flushed dry skin thay feels hot to the touch, chills, loss of appetite.
The four areas of the body that temp can be taken. Rectal, oral, axillary, tympanic
Adult temperature range 97.8-99
Child temp range 97.8-98.6
Infant temp range 99-9.7
Adult pulse 60-90bpm
Child pulse 90-100bpm
Infant pulse 120 bpm
Adult respiration 15-20 breaths per minute
Infant respiration 30-60 breaths per min
Adult BP 90-120/50-70
Adolescent BP 85-130/45-85
If correctly placed, provides a reading close to the core body temperature. Tympanic
Safest method for taking body temp. Noninvasive but not as accurate. SAFEST place on infant. Axillary
The closest to the core so most reliable form of temperature. Rectal
This pulse is over the apex of the heart and is heard with a stethescope. APICAL
This pulse is at the wrists at the base of the thumb. Radial
This pulse is at the front of the neck Carotid
The pulse rate is ____ if blood pressure is low. Rapid
The pulse rate is ___ if the blood pressure is high Slower
The 2 things to report when recording pulse. Strength and regularity.
How to report pulse when slight pressure leads to pulse obliteration Weak and thready
Blood pressure is The amount of blood flow ejected from the left ventricle of the heart during systolic and the amount of resistance the blood meets due to systemic vascular resistance.
Maintenance of blood pressure depends on Peripheral resistance, pumping action of the heart, blood volume, blood viscosity, and the elasticity of the vessel walls.
The number of RBC in blood plasma determine it's Viscosity
With an increased number of RBC, the blood thickens and ____ Increases blood pressure
This reduces flexibility of the arteries and increases blood pressure Atherosclerotic plaque
If peripheral resistance declines what happens to the BP It decreases
If peripheral resistance increases what happens to BP It increases
Physiologic factors that may increase BP Increased cardiac output, increased peripheral vascular resistance, increased blood volume, increased blood viscosity, and decreased arterial elasticity.
Physiologic factors that decrease BP Decreased cardiac output, decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased blood volumes, decreased blood viscosity, and increased arterial elasticity.
The ____ is the highest point reached during contraction of the left ventricle of the heart as it passes blood into the aorta. Systolic
This is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and is an indicator of strike volume. Pulse pressure
This decreases in hypovolemic shock Pulse pressure
The key to effective assessment requires that clinicians look,listen,touch,question,validate,reassess, analyze and trend
______________ can be more clinically significant than any single measurement. Trended data
APIE assess, planning, implement, and evaluate
subjective, objective, analysis (assessment), plan, implementation, and evaluation SOAPIE
SBAR situation, background, assessment, and recommendation
Purpose of the respiratory system Provides key data related to patient’s ability to maintain normal acid-base balance, oxygenation, and ventilation.
Bradypnea leads to: hypoxemia, hypoxia and mental status changes
Name the two types of sphymomanometer Aneroid and mercury
Quantitative ranges of blood pressure: normotensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive
What range of breaths per minute is the normal adult respiratory rate? 15-20
An adult patient is considered to be hypertensive or to have hypertension if the systolic BP and diastolic BP are consistently greater than: 140 systolic, 90 diastolic
A person may have tachycardia if their pulse is over: 100
What is the normal oral body temperature of an adult? 97.8 degrees F - 99 degrees F
Explain why the pulse rate goes up when the BP drops. The body tries to compensate by pumping faster to get blood and O2 to the body.
Virulent extremely toxic
Define Nosocomial Infection Iatrogenic-caused by a therapeutic procedure or treatment
What is a "community acquired infection"? A patient has acquired the problem outside the hospital.
Microorganisms in the body Normal Flora
The term for infections that are't caused by normal flora Exogenous infections
The term for an infection acquired in the health care setting as a result of overgrowth of normal flora endogenous nosocomial infection
What precautions to take for an HIV patient Standard precautions and needle handling precautions
How are Hep A and E transmitted? Fecal oral route
How are Hep B, C, and D transmitted? Blood or body fluids
Encephalopathy a disorder of the brain
What are some diseases produced by MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus decubitus ulcers, pneumonia, endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis, and septic thrombophlebitis
Define medical asepsis microorganisms have been eliminated through the use of soap, water, friction, and various chemical disinfectants.
Define surgical asepsis microorganisms and their spores have been completely destroyed by means of heat or by chemical process.
The Joint Commission sets requirements for hospital safety, infection control practices, and patient care standards. Accredits the hospitals.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal agency that protects workers and students from work related injuries and illnesses.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Performs research and compiles statistical data concerning infectious diseases. develops immunization guidelines
Food and Drug Administration US Public Health Service branch responsible for protecting the public from false drug claims. Regulates the manufacture and sale of medications.
World Health Organization Works under auspices of the UN to reduce famine and disease throughout the world. Compiles info concerning infectious diseases.
US Department of Health and Human Services Specifies and notifies agents to destroy various types of medical waste.
US Environmental Protection Agency Specifies destruction practices for waste from patients with contagious highly communicable diseases.
Nuclear Control Agency Controls disposal of nuclear waste
Standard precautions Can include anything and any patient. Based on the assumption that every patient has the potential for having an infectious disease.
What precautions do you take while being exposed to blood or body fluids? Gloves, gown, mask, and eye protection.
What precautions to take when you know the person has a communicable disease Transmission based precautions
The distance of a droplet to spread by coughing, talking, sneezing 3 ft
What are the diseases spread by air. Airborne Isolation SARS, smallpox, TB, varicella-chicken pox, and rubeola.
What precautions to take when the illness is airborne private room, negative air pressure, vintilation, N95 respirator mask, surgical mask for visitors. Standard precautions. A surgical mask for a patient to be transferred within the hospital.
Patients with SARS must have extra precaution, what is this? Contact isolation
Contact Isolation
Name the two types of contact spread of infection. Direct contact and indirect contact.
Direct contact is when you have touched the patient directly
Indirect contact You have not directly touched the patient but you have touched something they have touched.
Examples of Direct Contact diseases Hepatitis A, HIV, Staphylococcus, Enteric bacteria
Examples of Indirect Contact diseases Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteric bacteria, Hepatitis B and C, HIV
Examples of Droplet diseases Haemophilus infuenzae (type B) pneumonia and epiglottis, Neisseria meningitides, pneumonia, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Streptococcal pneumonia, Influenza, Mumps, Rubella, Adenovirus
Critical comes into contact with blood or internal body. Has to be sterile.
Semi-critical direct or indirect contact with mucous membranes. Can be disinfected.
Non-critical touches intact skin, or not at all. Low to medium disinfectants.
Iatrogenic Illness caused by medical treatment
Nosocomial infection caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and the enzyme ESBL. Acquired in the hospital.
Medical asepsis any practice that helps reduce the number and spread of microorganisms.
Surgical asepsis complete removal of microorganisms and their spores from the surface of an object.
The process of surgical asepsis includes medical asepsis followed by sterilization
The double lumen tube designed to maintain a continuous flow of atmospheric pressure into the stomach Sump gastric tube
Where does the Levin tube enter? The stomach
Where does the Cantor tube enter? The small intestine
The tube that is surgically inserted directly into the stomach for nourishment Gastrostomy tube
Fowlers position head of the patient's bed is raised 18 to 20 inches above the level of the heart with the knees also elevated.
Subjective data is perception/perspective –based data
Objective data is Measurable/quantifiable
APIE assess, planning, implement, and evaluate
Nasogastric Tube and Nasoenteric Tube inserted for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.
Cantor use Relieves obstructions in the small intestine
Harris use Gastric and intestinal decompression
Miller-Abbott use Decompression
Levin use Gastric decompression
Sump use Drain fluid from the stomach
Nutriflex use Feedings
Moss use aspiration of fluid; duodenal feeding
Sengstaken-Blakemore use Control bleeding from esophageal varices
T/F NG tubes are taped in place True
T/F NE tubes are taped in place False
Created by: amy wiseman