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Biology Exam 2

TermDefinition
adenine/thymine and guanine/cytosine Give an example of a DNA base pair, i.e. using the letters write the two that are complementary in a base pair
two How many DNA molecules are in a replicated chromosome?
tRNA What molecule delivers amino acids to ribosomes?
DNA polymerase What is the enzyme that joins free nucleotides to form a new strand of DNA?
DNA polymerase What enzyme replicates DNA?
codon A triplet of mRNA nucleotides complementary to the code of DNA is called a
pyruvate In glycolysis, glucose is split into two molecules of 3 carbons each. Each 3 carbon molecule is a carbohydrate named:
carbon dioxide The Krebs cycle produces ___________, a respiratory gas.
electron NADH is known as a(n) _______________carrier.
Aa Using the first letter of the alphabet, write a heterozygous genotype
cytoplasm where does glycolosis occur in the cell?
mitochondria where does the Kreb's cycle occur in the cell?
mitochondria where does ETP occur in the cell?
respiration glycolosis, kreb's cycle, and ETP are all part of cellular ______________
glycolosis Which stage occurs without the need for O2?
ETP Cellular respiration produces ATP. Which of the three stages of cellular respiration produces the most ATP?
it joins with dioxygen and becomes part of a water molecule (Z scheme) ETP passes electrons to lower energy states produces ATP along the way. What happens to the “spent” electron at the end of the ETP?
lactate and alcoholic What are the two types of fermentation in anaerobic cellular respiration?
alcoholic Which produces CO2: lactate or alcoholic fermentation?
pyruvate What molecule is the starting molecule (first reactant) in both alcoholic and lactate fermentation?
zero How many ATP are produced in fermentation (the conversion of pyruvate that frees electron carriers needed for the continuation of glycosis)?
chromatids Just prior to cell division, each chromosome is comprised of two identical parts called __________.
False Two homologous chromosomes occur together in haploid cells (T/F)
False Two homologous chromosomes carry different genes (T/F)
True Two homologous chromosomes carry different alleles (T/F)
False Two homologous chromosomes are the same as two sister chromatids (T/F)
True Two homologous chromosomes are found in the zygote (T/F)
False Two homologous chromosomes:Are found in a gamete cell (T/F)
False Two homologous chromosomes are morphologically different (T/F)
DNA may replicate, cell is very active/not resting What happens in a cell during the period of the cell cycle called “interphase”?
meiosis What type of cell division accomplishes the task of separating the paired factors that Mendel used as part of his explanation for inheritance?
meiosis and fertilization Sexual reproduction for microscopic algae and humans alike, requires what to processes?
meiosis on the outside and fertilization on the inside How are these processes reflected in a Punnett Square? “AA” parent crossed with “aa” parent
homologous chromosomes at the start of meiosis During meiosis, what and when is synapsis?
codominant = one does not dominate the other What type of interaction do the “A” allele and “B” allele have in determining blood type?
assist in peptide bond formation between amino acids Which of the two is a key function of ribosomes? Assist in peptide bond formation between amino acids. Aid the union between anticodons and the DNA template strand.
polygenic Most human traits are under what type of genetic influence?
46 how many chromosomes in the human body?
respiration Breathing (gas exchange: CO2 & O2)
cellular respiration extracting energy from carbohydrates
ATP Adenosine triphosphate
ATP supplies the energy that powers the human heart, the flick of a finger, & the action of an enzyme’s active site
ATP breaks apart when giving energy
ADP & P ATP breaks into ____________ releasing energy in the process
energy source An _______________ is needed to put ATP back together again
carbohydrates Much of the energy that is needed to put ATP back together comes from electrons removed from ________________
Electron Carriers take electrons from carbohydrates and deliver them to a process that forms ATP
NAD+ (becoming NADH) picks up electrons
NADH (becoming NAD+) delivers electrons
Cellular Respiration releases the energy of carbohydrates producing ATP
36 how many ATP does 1 glucose yield?
glycolysis, krebs cycle, and ETP Three stages of Aerobic Respiration
glycolysis stage of aerobic respiration that occurs in cytoplasm
glycolysis Splits glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules
krebs cycle Pyruvate moves into mitochondria where __________ occurs
electron carriers (NADH, FADH2) pickup electrons
ETP Requires electrons delivered by carriers from Glycolysis & Krebs Cycle
ETP Requires O2 as final electron acceptor
ETP Produces H2O when O2 + H+ accept electrons
ETP Produces greatest ATP yield [32] as electrons passed to lower energy state.
Glycolysis and Fermentation two stages of anaerobic cellular respiration
glycolysis stage of anaerobic cellular respiration that produces ATP
fermentation stage of anaerobic cellular respiration that does not produce ATP
fermentation process removes electrons from electron carriers
lactate fermentation (animals) Pyruvate converted to lactate
alcohol fermentation (yeast and plants) Pyruvate converted to CO2 + alcohol
fermentation restores electron carriers needed for glycolysis
chromosomes Where is DNA found?
chromosomes “colored bodies” –of DNA & Protein
each chromatid a long DNA wound around histone proteins
karyotype image of chromosomes arranged by size & shape
Autosomes all Chromosomes but sex chromosomes; we have 22 pairs
Sex Chromosomes 1 pair, relate to sex, but carry genes for nonsexual traits
homologous chromosomes 2 of same kind; same size, shape, & carry same sequence of genes; one inherited from each parent
A Set of Chromosomes one of each different kind
23, 2, 46 how many kinds of chromosomes in human ♀? – Each cell w/ ? of each kind, ?? total
23, 46 You inherited one set of ?? chromosomes from each parent for a total of ??
haploid one set of chromosomes
diploid two sets of chromosomes
ploidy # sets of chromosomes
James Watson & Francis Crick 1953 discovered the DNA double helix
Adenine —Thymine
Cytosine —Guanine
Guanine —Cytosine
Thymine —Adenine
DNA double stranded, ladder-like. base pairs are the “rungs”
DNA Replication (zipper illustration) 1. The sides of DNA pull apart 2. DNA polymerase joins free nucleotides with exposed strands 3. Each double stranded DNA produced is in its own chromatid
cloning Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
cloning 1. Nucleus is removed from an egg 2. Somatic (body) cell injected into egg 3. An electrical current causes the injected cell to release its nucleus (the egg now behaves as if it’s been fertilized) 4. Egg divides, becomes an embryo clone
gene segment of DNA that codes for an RNA or Protein
alleles Alternative forms of a gene
Proteins (gene products) make one cell different from another even if the cells are genetic clones
homeotic genes Control body part formation, Ex. Tinman gene – gene for making a heart
Amino acids building blocks of proteins
protein synthesis gene expression
Transcription part of protein synthesis found in the nucleus
translation part of protein synthesis found in cytoplasm
transcription Produces messenger RNA (mRNA) – single stranded nucleic acid consisting of: A, U, C, G - Uracil replaces Thymine
mRNA is complementary to DNA, made in the nucleus & moves to cytoplasm
codons triplets of mRNA nucleotides; complementary to DNA code
translation requires ribosomes, two subunits make one ribosome
mRNA exits the nucleus and enters ribosomes
translation requires Transfer RNA (tRNA)
tRNA molecule has an exposed anticodon sequence at one end and carries an amino acid at the other end
tRNA delivers specific amino acids to ribosomes & more specifically to the mRNA contained within the ribosome
translation mRNA codons translated into a polymer of amino acids, i.e. a protein
hemoglobin example of a mutated gene
gene mutation change in DNA base sequence
Harmful radiation (X-Rays, UV), Chemicals, Viruses, during DNA Replication how do gene mutations arise?
Growth, Repair, Replacement, Sexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction why cells divide
1. interphase 2. cell division the life of a cell, the cell cycle
interphase when cell is not dividing; cell grows larger & is very active, ex. muscle cells contract; gland cells secrete – If cell is to divide, DNA is synthesized & chromosome duplicate
cell division mitosis or meiosis
neoplasms (tumors) an accumulation of abnormally dividing cells; develop if cell cycle control genes fail.
benign cells adhere
malignant cells migrate
mitosis clonal cell division as chromosomes Condense, Align, Separate, & Decondense
meiosis a diploid cell divides forming four haploid cells; requires 2 divisions; chromosome # is halved
Meiosis I, 1st division First division is ___________; 1 diploid cell divides producing 2 haploid cells; Synapsis and Crossing over occur
synapsis physical pairing of homologous chromosomes
crossing over (happens during synapsis) exchange of DNA between non sister chromatids— a source of genetic variation
Meiosis II, 2nd division each haploid cell divides once, 4 cells result
Meiosis I homologous chromosomes pair (synapse) then separate
Meiosis II sister chromatids separate
crossing over and independent assortment why are daughter cells of meiosis not genetically identical
genotype combination of alleles for the gene pair
AA homozygous genotype
Bb heterozygous genotypetype
meiosis necessary to produce haploid gametes
fertilization (fusion of gametes) restores the diploid condition in the zygote
mitosis In humans, the zygote divides by ___________ producing the next person
mitosis somatic (body) cells & embryos
meiosis gonad cells producing gametes
Gregor Mendel father of genetics; garden pea heredity
gene segregation pairs of genes segregate when homologous chromosomes separate during Meiosis
fertilization Pairs of genes recombine by _____________
sexual reproduction meiosis and fertilization
phenotype individuals observable traits
environment and genes What determines phenotype?
complete dominance heterozygotes have dominant phenotype
incomplete dominance heterozygotes have intermediate phenotype
codominance Heterozygotes have both phenotypes
Polygenic inheritance (epistasis) when multiple gene pairs influence a trait
abnormal hemoglobin has 1 amino acid different from normal hemoglobin & RBC cells collapse
HbAHbA normal heboglobin
HbAHbS sickle cell trait
HbSHbS sickle cell disease
ostinato
Created by: pace_sauce