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Bio Midterm 2

Biology

QuestionAnswer
Cell Definintion smallest of life
Animal Cell Characteristics mitochondria, small vacuole, cell membrane
Plant Cell Characteristics Chloroplast, large vacuole, cell wall
Surface area to Volume ratio more surface are, less volume results in a high surface to area volume
Eukaryotic Characteristics Nucleus, compartmentalization, membrane bound organelles, cytoskeleton
Prokayrotic Characterictics Nucleoid region, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, cytosol
Cell characteristics Ribosomes, DNA, cytoplasm, membrane
Proteomes Definition Protein DNA
Proteomes the protein DNA determines the cell structure and function
Cytoskeleton funtions cell shape internal organization, intracellular transport, movement
Cytoskeleton features actin (microfilaments), intern=mediate filaments, microfilaments (cilia, flagella and centrioles)
Nucleus functions contain DNA (codes for proteins)
Nuclear features Nuclear membrane (double layered and endomembrane system)
Ribosmes site of proteinsysnthesis
Ribosome locations assembled in nucleus, free in cytoplasm
Endomembrane System organelles
Rough ER sorts and folds proPteins, inserts proteins into ER, glycosalation
Smooth ER continuous with Rough ER, synthesis and modification of lipids
ER network of membranes, encloses lumen
Golgi Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for secretion
Lysosmes phagocytosis (cell eating other cell), autophagy (cell eating self with bad stuff)
apoptosis cell death
Vacuoles stores waste/toxic compounds, stores and pigments
Peroxisomes contains specific digestive enzymes including catalase, breaks large mlecules into lipids, breaks into toxic hydrogen peroxide
Mitchchondria make ATP, outer and inner membrane, intermembrane space, mitochondrial matrix, contain their own DNA
Choloplasts plastids, plants and some protists, photosynthesis, contains their own DNA, divide by binary fission
PCD (Cilia) chronic bronchitis, sinitus, pneumonia, hearing loss
Goucher's (Lysosomes) enlarged liver/spleen, anemia, fatigue, impaired clotting, bruising, fatty deposits
CF (Plasme membrane) thick mucous in lungs, salty sweat, lung infections, lack of moisture in lungs
ALD (Peroxisomes) lethargic, decreased blood sugar, nervous system deteriorates, fatty acid build up
Virus RNA and DNA, only reproduces inside other cells
Bacteria circular DNA, asexual reproduction
Protozons linear DNA, sexual and a sexual reprouction
Membranes semifluid, most lipids can more laterally
Factors affecting fluidity length of fatty acid tails (shorter means longer), Double bonds int he actyl tails (more unsat more fluid), presence in (stabilizes membranes)
Intergral proteins found in cytoskeleton
Peripheral proteins attach to integral membrane proteins and penetrate the lipid bylayer
Glycosylation covalently attatching a carb to a protein lipid
membrane synthesis occurs in smooth ER, uses enzymes, glycosylation
passive transport no energy, with gradient, passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion
active transport energy input, against gradient, Na/K pumps
factors affecting diffusion size (smaller means faster), temperature (hotter means faster), gradient (steeper means faster), charge (more complex), pressure (higher means faster)
diffusion across the membrane depends on concentration, phospholipid bylayer
Channels open passageway, passive, faster
transporters conformational, active, slower, 3 types
primary active transport uses a pump, ATP used directly
Secondary active trasnport uses preexisting ATP to drive transport
Endocytosis receptor-mediated, moves things in
Exocytosis moves things out
Hyponatermia low levels of nitrogen
2nd law of thermodynamics the total disorder/entropy of a system and its surrounding increases
1st law of thermodynamics energy is neither created or destroyed, only transfered
Free energy energy available to do work in biological systems, can be used to predict the direction of the reaction, (Delta G)
Energy states potential and kinetic
Energy conversion the capacity to produce certain changes within any system, without regard to limitations in transformation imposed
total energy equation usable + unusable
Enthalpy equation H= G + TS
ATP structure ribose sugar, nitrogen base, phosphate
ATP function captures, transfers, and stores energy
Exergonic catabolic, requires ATP, releases free energy
Endergonic anabolic, requires free energy
enzyme function speeds up reaction, lowers activation energy
enzyme definition catalyst
transition state the minimum energy that is needed to break certain bonds of the reactants so as to turn them into products
enzyme-substrate complex lock and key fit of enzyme and substrate
Vmax velocity of reaction near maximal rate
Km substrate concentration where velocity is is half the max volume
factors that affect enzyme function prosthetic groups, co-factors, co-enzymes, temperature, pH, salt concentration
inhibition a molecule binds in inactive it
activation a molecule binds to activate it
competitive molecule that will activate/inactive enzyme, binds directly to enzyme
noncompetitive/allosteric molecule that will activate/inactivate enzyme, binds to a site other than active site
metabolic pathways each step is coordinated via enzyme, anabolic and catabolic
redox reactions metabolises small organic molecules
oxidation removal of electrons
reduction gain of electron
NAD essential electron carrier in cellular redox reactions
gene regulation turns genes off
cellular regulation cell signaling pathways
feedback inhibition a type of biochemical regulation (overproducing turns itself off)
enzyme case study high Km is bad, means you need more substrate, not a good fit
Created by: ZebraQueen12