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APES Review

APES Review Project

What's High Quality Energy? Enough energy to knock electrons fom atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer. Ex. gamma-Xrays-UV.
What's High Quality Energy? Organzed & concentrated, can perform useful work. Ex. fossil fuels & nuclear
What's Low Quality Energy? Disorganized, dispersed. Ex. heat in ocean or air wind, solar.
What's the 1st Law of Thermodynamics? Energy is nether created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another,
What's the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics? When energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat).
What's the estimate of how long a radactive isotope must be stored util it decays to a safe level? Approximately 10 half-lives
What's Nuclear Fission? Nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons.
What's Neclear Fusion? 2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperaturs till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet.
What's Ore? A rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine.
What's Mineral Reserve? Identified deposits currently profitable to extract.
What's Half Life? The time it takes for 1/2 the mas of a radioisotope to decay.
What's Best Soluion to Energy Shortage? Conservation & increase efficiency.
What's Surface Mining? Cheaper & cn remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers.
What's Humus? Organic, dark materials remaining after decomposition by micoorgamnisms.
What's Leaching? Removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
What's Illuviation? Deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)
What's Loam? Perfect agicultral soil wth equal portions of sand, silt, & clay.
What's Solutions to Soil Problems? Conservtion tillage, crop rotation, contour plowing, organic fertillizers.
What's Parts of the Hydrologic Cycle? Evaporation, transpiration, runoff, codenation, precipitation, infiltration.
What's Aquifer? Any water bearing layer in the ground.
What's Cone of Depression? Lowering of the wter table around a pumping well.
What's Salt Water Intrusion? Near the cost, overpumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the acquifer.
What's ENSO? El Nino Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific.
What's During an El Nino Year? Trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to SA
What's During a Non EL Nino year? Easterly trade winds and ocean currents pull warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America
What's Efects of El Nino? Upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters, SW US has ncreased rainall, less Atlantic Hurricanes.
What's Nitrogen Fixing? Because atmospheric N connot be used directly by plants, it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria.
What's Ammonification? Decomposers convert organic waste into ammonia.
What's Nitrificaion? Ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
What's Assimilation? Inorganic N is converted ito orgnic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins.
What's Denitrification? Bacteria convert ammonia back into
Why Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N? Because it does not exist as a gas, but is releases by weathering of phosphate rocks.
Why soils contains very little phosphorus? Because it is a major limiting factor for plant growth.
How excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems? By runoff of animal wastes, fertiizers discharge of sewage.
What's Photosynthesis? Plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into comlex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O)
What's Aerobic Respiration Oxyen consuming proucers,consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
What's Largest Reservoirs of C? Carbonate rocks 1st, oceans 2nd.
What's Biotic/Abiotic? Living and nonliving components of an ecosystem.
What's Producer/Autotroph? Photosynthetic life.
What's Major Tropic Levels? Producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer
What's Energy flow in food webs? Only 10% of the usable energy is transferred.
Why is only 10% transferred? Usable energy lost as heat(2nd Law), not all biomas is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey.
What's Primary Succession? Development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life(Lava)
What's Secondary Succession? Life progresses where soil remans(clear cut forest)
What's Mutualism? Symbiotic relationship were both partners benefit.
What's Commensalism? Symbiotic reationship where onepartner benefits & the other is unnaffected?
What's Parasitism? Relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host.
What's Biome? Large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plats. & animals.
What's carrying Cspacity? The number of individuals that can be sustained in an area.
Created by: Ch4v3z