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Biochemistry

Test 1 Part 5

TermDefinition
1. Atmosphere 2. Hydrosphere 3. Lithosphere 4. Biosphere 4 Chemical Reserves on Earth
Carbon • 4th most abundant element in the universe • Found in all organic molecules (amino acids, proteins, carbs, DNA)
100x • Before life on earth- CO2 levels were ____ greater than today • As plants evolved, CO2 was removed from the atmosphere through photosynthesis
Photosynthesis removes carbon from the atmosphere and places it into the lithosphere and biosphere
Cellular Respiration primary mechanism that returns C to the atmosphere or hydrosphere
Energy chemical energy in the form of ATP- _____ currency of living cells • Mostly enters the atmosphere as CO2 or methane (CH4)
o Burning organic compounds o Diffusion into the atmosphere (from the hydrosphere) o Decomposition Carbon enters through respiration and through:
Carbonates (limestone, marble) Carbon enters the lithosphere through:
o Carbonate (CO3-3) o Bicarbonate (HCO3-) o Organic, from algae/phytoplankton Carbon enters hydrosphere as CO2 which can be converted into:
CH4- methane is a potent greenhouse gas: o Occurs naturally o 21x more powerful than CO2
1. Wetlands 2. Lakes 3. Termite 4. Ocean 5. CH4 Hydrate • All products of fermentation (cellular respiration w/o oxygen being present) 5 Natural Sources of Methane...
1. Fossil Fuel Mining 2. Enteric Fermentation 3. Rice Cultivation 4. Burning wood, grass 5. Landfills 6. Animal Waste 7. Sewage Treatment 7 Human Sources of Methane...
Nitrogen • Important for life- amino acids, proteins, DNA • 80% of Earths ____ is in the atmosphere as gas N2 o Not available to most organisms
Nitrogen Fixation process that converts N2 to ammonia (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-)
Ammonia and nitrate can then be used by plants and microbes o Animals receive N by eating other organisms with N After Nitrogen Fixation, ammonia and nitrate are used by...
Rhizobium-N fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes (bean family)
Frankia-N fixing bacteria in roots of Alder trees (100kg N per hectare)
Azobacter & Clostridum free living soil bacteria
Azobacter & Clostridium free living soil bacteria
Cyanobacteria fixation occurs in special cells, heterocyst (75% N fixation in aquatic systems)
High Energy N Fixation lighting, cosmic radiation, meteorites (~10% of total natural N fixation)
Nitrogen/ Phosphorous ____ is limited in salt water & ____ is limited in freshwater
Decomposition release N back into the environment
Ammonification the breakdown of organic molecules (proteins and amino acids) to release ammonia (NH4+)
Nitrification converting ammonia to:  Nitrite (NO2-) by bacteria Nitrosomonas  Nitrate (NO3-) by bacteria Nitrobacter
Dentrification returning NH3+ to N2 gas  Occurs in anoxic environments (no oxygen)
Eutrophication o Too much nitrogen in an aquatic system o Causes overgrowth of algae/phytoplankton blooms o Causes fish kills o N is growth limited in most marine/coastal systems
Phosphorous Vital element- RNA, DNA, ATP
Phosphorous • Does not have a dominant gas phase (atmosphere) o Typically found as small particles in the atmosphere • Major reservoir- sedimentary rock
Biosphere • P in ____ comes from sediments through weathering • Oxidized in phosphates (PO4-3), enters soils and water (hydrosphere) where taken in by plants
Animals get P from eating other organisms (but lose P from waste products; urine, feces, decomposition) How do animals gain and lose P?
Created by: acorso3