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Energy

Test 1 Part 4

TermDefinition
Energy the ability to do work- power x time
Power the rate at which work is done- energy/time
Potential Energy energy that is stored but has not yet been released
Kinetic Energy energy of motion
Chemical Energy energy in chemical bonds
1st Law of Thermodynamics energy is neither created nor destroyed
2nd Law of Thermodynamics when energy is transformed, the quantity of the energy remains the same, but its ability to do specific work diminishes. Often energy forms are transformed to heat (aka thermal energy)
Entropy all systems move toward randomness rather than order
solar energy most ecosystems rely on this type of energy to drive their systems using a process of photosynthesis
hot springs, sea floor around hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale carcasses and sunken ship Chemosynthetic bacterial communities have been found in
Photosyntheisis Common in plants, algae, and some bacteria (cyanobacteria and purple sulfur bacteria)
Convert solar energy, CO2, and H2O into potential chemical energy (C6H12O6) What type of energy does photosynthesis convert?
Autotrophs organisms that use photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Cellular Respiration The chemical energy in glucose is released through this. This energy is then used to grow, reproduce, move, protect from pathogens, and battle against entropy. All organisms, including plants use respiration to fuel growth & _____.
Trophic level how energy moves through an ecosystem
Consumer or Hetertroph cannot do photosynthesis or chemosynthesis so they must get energy by consuming other organisms
Primary Consumer herbivores that eat producers
Secondary Consumer carnivores that eat primary consumers
Tertiary Consumer are rare, but are carnivores that eat secondary consumers
Trophic Level “level” of feeding or acquiring energy. Can be represented in a food chain, or more accurately in a food web.
Onmivores operate at several trophic levels
Scavengers carnivores that consume dead organisms
Detrivores consume partially broken down tissues and waste products
Decomposers complete the breakdown process, and help recycle nutrients
how much life (number and size) an ecosystem can support What does the amount of energy available to an ecosystem determine?
Gross Primary Productivity how much energy is captured by an ecosystem (often its photosynthesis)- this does not consider what is lost by the producer through cellular respiration
Net Primary Productivity is the energy captured minus the energy respired by producers.
NPP=GPP – respiration by producers Equation for NPP
Carbon What do ecosystems run off?
higher biodiversity, the more food you have for an organism More NPP...
• Measure photosynthesis and respiration • Measure new plants weight and then measure it in the fall and the biomass if the difference in the amount of carbon How do you measure NPP?
1% 60% 40% •Only ___% of the solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface is captured by producers. o ____% of that goes to producers respiration o ____% goes to NPP
GPP: 2.5 kg/m2/year Respiration: 1.5 kg/m2/year NPP: 1 c/ m2/year --> goes to growth and reproduction North American Forest: GPP, Respiration, NPP
biomass, standing crop So we can measure energy NPP in ______ which is the total mass of all living matter in an area. ____ ____ is also a measure of biomass, but is also restricted to the dry weights of plants.
Ecological efficiency portion of consumed energy that can be passed through trophic levels
Salt Marsh highest primary productivity --> most productive ecosystem
Often between 1% (bird/mammals)- warm blood- and 20% insects usually around 10%. Ecological Efficienty of bird/mammals and insects is
1000 joules in primary consumers 100 joules in secondary consumers 10 joules in tertiary consumer 10,000 joules (units of energy) in producers
Created by: acorso3