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Bio Exam 2

What is the purpose of Melanin? Protects against UV damage from sun.
Sun tans = are the result of increased melanin production(7-10 days to respond)
Cholecalciferol = UV radiation is important in vitamin D3 production
Calcitroil = formed in the kidney and used to increase calcium levels.
True or False - Calcium and Phosphorus is important in uptake in the intestine True
Inadequate supple of cholecalciferol = leads to impaired bone growth ad maintenance
No sunlight, no D3 in diet = rickets(abnormal bone growth in children
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) = is important to stimulate basal cells for injury repair.
What are the two major layers in the dermis? Papillary layers and Reticular layers
Papillary layers = aureolar tissue, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic
Reticular layers = interwoven connective tissue
Stretch marks = massive distortions of the dermis
Cleavage lines= Collagen and elastic bundles around your entire body
Bruise = when blood vessels are ruptured and leak blood
Hypodermis = subcutaneous layer
Too much fat in diet = central adiposity
Liposuction = a cosmetic surgery, can be a "quick fix"
Risk of blood loss = highly vascularized
Accessory Structures = Hair, sweat glands, and nails
Hairs = protect from skin surface, found everywhere, 75% on body
Hair follicles = Protective sheath of connective tissue
Root hair plexus = nerve at base, very sensitive
Arrestor pili muscle = are small muscles attached to hair follicles
Are hair samples useful for DNA fingerprinting? yes
Male pattern baldness = Due to changes in testosterone
Hair color = Pigments produced by melanocytes at base
Hair dyes = Each hair is surround by a protective cuticle layer.
cuticle layer = the outer layer of living tissue
Exocrine secretion = glandular epithelium
Sebaceous gland = oil discharge into hair follicle
Apocrine sweat glands = secrete products into hair follicles, but oil substances are food for bacteria
Merocine seat glands = are most numerous over body
Sweat = 99% water, electrolytes, and protein dermcidin
Functions of sweat glands = Cooling surfaces of body, excreting water, electrolytes, and some wastes, protection
Mammary glands = modified apocrine sweat glands in mammals
Ceruminous glands= in external ear, produce earwax
Nails = more keratinized epidermal cells
Functions of fingernails = protect dorsal surface from damage, limit distortion of finger tips and toes from stress
Nail body = covers areas of finger called nail bed
Features of the nail = cuticle and lunula
Calluses = physical stress and stratum basal
Stem cells = epithelial and connective tissue layers that can repair skin injuries
What are the 4 stages in repairing skin injuries? inflammatory phase, migratory phase, proliferation phase, scarring phase
Keloid = can sometimes go beyond what is required, overgrowth of scar
Can scar tissue develop anywhere on the body? yes, but it is largely harmless
Tattoos = Dark pigments are inert an imbedded deep in the dermis below stratum basal
Epidermis thins = Basal cell activity declines
Sebum = oily secretions of the sebaceous glands
The skeletal system is comprised of: Bones, cartilage, ligaments, and other connective tissues that support or stabilize the system
The Five primary functions of the entire skeletal system: Support Storage of minerals and lipids Blood cell production Physical protection Leverage
What are the 6 broad categories of bones? Sutural bones Irregular bones Short bones Long bones Flat bones Sesamoid bones
Why do many bones have markings? For elevation or protection from where connective tissues attach and joints articulate
What are the depressions, grooves, or tunnels in a bone? It is where the nerves and blood vessels penetrate
What is the Anatomy of a femur bone? Diaphysis Metaphysis Epiphysis Compact bone Spongy bone Medullary cavity
Diaphysis = the shaft or central part of a long bone.
Metaphysis = It is considered a part of the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood and as it grows
Epiphysis = the end part of a long bone, initially growing separately from the shaft.
Compact bone = the compact, noncancellous portion of bone that consists largely of concentric lamellar osteons and interstitial lamellae.
Spongy bone = Spongy bone is a network of irregularly-shaped sheets and spikes of bone
Medullary cavity = the central cavity of bone shafts where red bone marrow and/or yellow bone marrow (adipose tissue) is stored
What are the 4 characteristics of Bone? 1. Matrix is dense, has calcium deposits 2. Matrix contains living bone cells, existing in "pockets" 3. Canaliculi connect bone cells and blood vessels 4. Periosteum surrounds bone surface
What makes up the strength/weight of a bone? Calcium + collagen
How much weight does calcium take up in bone? 2/3
How much weight does collagen fibers take up in bone? 1/3
What are the 4 basic types of bone cells? Osteocytes Osteoblasts Osteogenic cells Osteoclasts
Osteocytes = Occupy a "pocket" between matrix layers - lacunae, Never divide, only one cell per lacunae.
Canaliculi = Osteocytes remain connected to blood supply
What are the functions of osteocytes? Maintain protein and mineral content of bone.
Osteoblasts =
Created by: Mbelcher21



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