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Biology GCSE B1

How long do you go to jail for dealing Class A drugs and name 3 examples Life long imprisonment. Magic mushrooms Cocaine Crystal Meth
What hormone controls diabetes Insulin
What is the difference in being fit and being healthy? Being healthy means being free from diseases and illness Being fit means being in good shape and the ability to do physical activity
What does hypertensive mean and what can it cause? Hypertensive is high blood pressure and it can cause strokes, this happens when blood vessels burst and it can also cause kidney failure
What does hypotensive mean and what can it cause? Hypotensive means having low blood pressure and can cause dizziness and fainting because not enough blood circulation is getting to the brain.
What is the main factor in increasing heart disease High cholesterol
Name the five Things used to determine fitness Agility Flexibility Speed Stamina Strength
Why does smoking increase blood pressure? Because the red blood cells are taking up more carbon monoxide which means less oxygen is in the cell so less goes around the body. The carbon monoxide joins with the haemoglobin in the red blood cells.
How is heart disease caused? By restricted flow of blood from the blood vessels to the heart as the cholesterol blocks them meaning less blood can get through to the heart.
What are proteins made from? Amino acids
What factors cause a varied balanced diet? Age, gender, religion, vegan or vegetarian.
Where are carbohydrates stored and what are they store as? They are stored In the liver as glycogen
Where are fats stored. Fats are stored around the internal organs and under the skin as adipose tissue
Where are proteins stored? They are not stored in the body even though they are used for growth and repair.
What is EAR Estimated averaged daily requirement for protein in the human body
How is your EAR worked out? 0.6 X body mass in Kg = EAR in grams
What problems can lack of proteins cause? Kwashiorkor, it is more commonly found In developing countries where there isn't a lot of food.
What are the difference In first class and second class proteins? First class comes from meat and fish that contain all essential amino acids that can not be created in the human body. Second class comes from plants and nuts and only has a few essential amino acids that are needed in the human body
How do you work out the BMI? Body mass In kilos divided height in meters squared
Why may people chose to eat less To lose weight without realising it's actually unhealthy. Low self esteem and a poor self image
How is malaria caused? Malaria is caused by a protozoan called plasmodium starts feeding on human red blood cells
What is a parasite? A parasite, for example Mosquitos carry the plasmodium but are not effected. This makes them a vector and they will jump from person to person sucking their blood
The differences between a benign Tumour and a malignant tumour. Benign rumours are non cancerous tumours for example, warts. They divide slowly and are harmless. Malignant tumours are cancerous tumours. The cell has uncontrolled growth and can spread fast
What reduces the risk of cancer Not smoking as tar fills the lungs so you get lung cancer. Wearing sun screen when outdoors to stop UV from the sun.
What is pathogen A disease causing organism
What do white blood cells do. They make antibodies which cling onto the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. Eventually the pathogen would die
What is a placebo A harmless drug that is used as a comparison to the drug being tested. Doctors then know if the drug works
What is a blind trial? A trial that the patient doesn't know if they have recieving a placebo or the drug. In a double blind trial, the doctor nor the patient knows what drug was used
What is binocular vision? Works out how far an object is by comparing how different the images from each eye is. The more different an object is, the close it is
How is red-green colour blindness caused Lack of specialised cells in the retina
How is being Long sighted caused The eyeball is too short or the lens is too thin meaning that the image is caused behind the retina Long sighted people can not see close up images and need to wear convex glasses
How is short sightedness caused? The eyeball is too long or the lens is too rounded meaning that the lens refracts light too much so the image would be in front of the retina. Short sighted can't see far away and wear concave glasses
What are nerve cells called Neutrons
Where do the nerve impulses pass along? The Axon
What is the pathway for a spinal reflex? Stimulus - receptor - sensory neurone - central nervous system - motor neurone - effector -response.
What are the 5 kinds of drugs Stimulants Hallucinations Depressants Performance enhancers Painkillers
What do depressants do? Block the transmission of nerve impulses
What are cilia Cilia are small hairs that are found in the trachea, epithelial lining or bronchi
What is a smokers cough? A smokers cough is when mucus is not removed by the cilia and dust and Particles irritate the epithelial lining
How does cirrhosis of the liver take place. When the liver breaks down the toxic chemicals like alcohol. The liver then Damages
What is homeostasis When a constant internal environment takes place.
What does homeostasis involve? Balancing the bodies inputs and outputs
How are negative feedback controls used in homeostasis? Used to cancel out a change, for example a change in temperature, water and carbon dioxide
What is the optimum temperature for enzymes in the human body 37°C
What can a high temperature cause? Dehydration and heart stroke.
What does the body do to avoid overheating? The body sweats and turns the heat into liquid sweat which cools you down. The sweat then evaporates and turns into water vapour.
What is hypothermia Hypothermia happens when your body temperature is dangerously low. Hypothermia means high heart rate and shivering. Hypothermia can cause body parts to freeze and fall off.
What is hyperthermia Hyperthermia is when you have a high temperature
What is blood temperature measured by? The hypothalamus gland in the brain. Reactions to a change in temperature are controlled by the nervous or hormonal systems and if left untreated, can trigger vasoconstriction
What is vasoconstriction When the blood is too cold so small blood vessels in the skin constrict so less blood flows through them reducing heat loss
What is vasodilation When the body is too hot so small blood vessels in the skin dilate so blood flow increases bringing more blood to the surface where there is heat loss (Sweat evaporates from the skin surface cooling it)
What does the body do to avoid to avoid overheating The body sweats increases the heat transfer from the body to the environment
What do hormones travel through? Blood
Where is insulin produced? The pancreas
What is type 1 diabetes? The pancreas isn't creating enough insulin so must be treated with injections of insulin
What is type 2 diabetes When the body doesn't react to the insulin and can be controlled by diet
What is phototropism A Plants growth response to light
What is geotropism A plants growth response to gravity
What are auxins Plant hormones that move through the plant solution
What are auxins involved in Phototropism and geotropism
Where are the auxins made In the root and shoot tip
Where is more auxin found The shady parts of the shoot
What will happen with an increase in length of cells There will be a higher amount of auxins meaning that the shoot begins to curve towards the light
What are commercial uses of plant hormones Selective weed killers, kill specific weeds which increase crop yield Rooting powder Control dormancy in seeds
What are some human inherited characteristics Facial features, hair, height
What are alleles Different versions of the same gene
Are intelligence, sporting ability and health inherited There is a debate whether it is genetic or environmental
Where are recessive alleles expressed Only in the absence of the dominant allele
How many pairs of chromosomes does a human have 23
What kind of chromosomes do females have Sex chromosomes called XX
What sex chromosomes do males have XY
What chromosomes do eggs have X
What chromosomes do sperm carry Either X or Y
Why is there an equal chance of offspring being male or female Because there is a random chance of which sperm fertilises an egg
What is genetic variation caused by Mutations which are random changes in genes or chromosomes Rearrangement of genes during the formation of gametes Fertilisation which causes in a zygote with alleles from the mother and father
What is a monohybrid cross A monohybrid cross involves only one pair of characteristics controlled by a single gene. One allele being dominant and one recessive
What does homozygous mean Means identical alleles
What does heterozygous mean Having different alleles
What is a persons genotype It's their genetic makeup. Their phenotype is which alleles are expressed
How are inherited disorders caused By faulty genes
Is it possible to predict inheriting disorders Yes, by interpreting genetic diagrams
Are faulty alleles recessive or dominant Recessive
Created by: Kashabernadette



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