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Life Sci - Chapter 3

study guide

What is a cell? The smallest unit that can perform life processes.
Who first discovered a cell? Robert Hooke
What organism was 1st discovered by a microscope? cork cells
Leewenhoek discovered what type of organisms? protists and bacteria
What scientist discovered animal cells? Theodore Schwann (?)
The 3 parts of the cell theory are: 1. All organisms are made of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of all living things. 3. All cells come from existing cells
The fluid inside a cell is called…..? cytoplasm
The protective layer that covers the cell is…..? cell membrane
What are organelles? Tiny organ like structures that are specialized to perform a specific functions
What is DNA? genetic material that passes on inherited characteristics
DNA is protected inside of what? The nucleus
Explain the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. prokaryotes - no nucleus; small/ single-celled organism: eukaryotes - has nucleus; multi-celluar organisms
What are the two types of prokaryote cells? eubacteria and archebacteria
Explain the differences between unicellular and multicellular. Unicellular is one cell, multicellular is more than one cell
Cell walls are found in what types of organisms? plants and algae
The site of protein synthesis. ribosomes
Used to assist a cell in production, processing and transport of proteins ER - endoplasmic recticulum
What does the mitochondria do for the cell? Provides energy
What type of organism will you find a chloroplast in? A plant.
The organelle that produces energy from the sun. A chloroplast
Cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell. Golgi complex
The structure that surrounds material so the cell can move items in and out of the cell. vacuole
What does the lysosome do for a cell? It digests food particles, wastes, cell parts, and foreign invaders
The organelle that stores water and other materials. Vacuoles
List the four levels of organization from simplest to complex. Cell - tissue- organ - organ system
The DNA of a cell is organized into structures called….? chromosomes
List the three stages of the cell cycle Interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
What stage of the life cycle does cell division happen? cytokinesis
What stage of the life cycle does DNA copying happen? interphase
What stage of the life cycle does a cell produce two new nucleus? mitosis
List the four pauses of mitosis in order prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (PMAT)
Describe what happens during prophase. Mitosis begins; nuclear membrane dissolves; chromosomes condense into rodlike structures
Describe what happens during metaphase.. chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell - homologous chromosomes pair up
Describe what happens during anaphase. chromatids separate and move to opposite sides of the cell
Describe what happens during telophase. nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes unwind - mitosis is complete
Created by: msparks